The Fungal Kingdom
Fall 2006 
Program Announcements,
Handouts, & Assignments

updated 12/19/06

In the interest of reducing the amount of scrolling you need to do, Weeks 1-5 Announcements, Assignments, and Handouts are available on another page.

Assignments/ Handouts

We will be leaving from the usual spot in C-lot at 8:30 AM for our field trip to the east side of the Olympics.

Half of your collections are due this Wed by noon. Please print out the collection review sheets for your collections (Lichen form and Mushroom form) and fill out the species list for each one. A review form must accompany your collection. Also be sure to clearly mark your collection, field notebook and lab notebook with your name ON THE OUTSIDE where it is clearly visible.

Summary of Program Changes and Updates
31 October 2006

  • Beginning this week, study questions will be distributed and group-discussed in Wednesday workshop, but they will no longer be collected and reviewed by Paul and Steve. The material covered by these questions will provide an important basis for quiz questions and a portion of the final “lab practical” exam (see below).
  • This Wednesday (1 Nov) we will go over Study Questions 1-4; we will go over Questions 5-8, plus a few more (to be distributed Wednesday), next week. We will do our best to keep lectures short enough to allow more time for study question discussions.
  • A portion of the final “lab practical” exam will cover the lecture and reading materials. The material in the weekly study questions will be an important source of information for this part of the exam. This will take place either late in Week 9 or early in Week 10.
  • This week’s Quiz Questions will be due Thursday at noon. Given the lack of consensus among the class, the quiz questions will continue rather than have a final lecture exam. In future weeks, they will be due on Wednesday, as usual.
  • Collections are due Wednesday at noon, as scheduled. We will try to get them back to you quickly, so that you will have your field notebooks available for weekend collecting at Deception Pass or wherever.
  • We will have field trips on the next two Mondays, the 6th and 13th of November.



Readings for Week 6 -- Mycorrhizal Ecology II
Common Mycelial (or Mycorrhizal) Networks

This week, we will focus on the possibility that mycorrhizal hyphae can serve as pipelines that connect plants (and the fungi) together in a functional network.

I suggest you read the papers in the order listed.

The Nature paper by Suzanne Simard et al. attracted a lot of attention and has been very influential. The commentary by David Read will help provide perspective. The paper by Robinson and Fitter expresses a contrasting view and is critical of Simard’s work. The Simard and Durall article provides a recent review of the topic. The final paper, by Jonathan Leake, describes one situation where it is clear that plant-to-plant movement occurs -- in myco-heterotrophic plants such as Indian pipe and pine drops.

  1. Read, David. 1997. Mycorrhizal fungi: the ties that bind. Nature 388: 517-518.
  2. Simard, Suzanne W., David A. Perry, Melanie D. Jones, David D. Myrold, Daniel M. Durall, and Randy Molina. 1997. Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field. Nature 388: 579-582.
  3. Robinson, David and Alastair Fitter. 1999. The magnitude and control of carbon transfer between plants linked by a common mycorrhizal network. Journal of Experimental Botany 50(330): 9-13.
  4. Simard, Suzanne W. and Daniel M. Durall. 2004. Mycorrhizal networks: a review of their extent, function, and importance. Canadian Journal of Botany 82: 1140-1165.
  5. Leake, Jonathan R. 2005. Plants parasitic on fungi: unearthing the fungi in myco-heterotrophs and debunking the ‘saprophytic’ plant myth. Mycologist 19(3): 113-122.

Key for Quiz 2 , please conserve paper and read on-line if possible

Study Questions #5 and Quiz #4


Collecting mushrooms (legally) on public lands in the Pacific Northwest requires that you stay up-to-date with many different sets of rules and regulations. Here's a copy of the current mushroom harvesting rules for the various agencies in the WA state.This summary was put together by a member of the Puget Sound Mycological Society and covers most of the federal and state jurisdictions in which you are likely to collect. Note that lichens are not dealt with specifically anywhere (at least to my knowledge).

It is good practice to always ask permission before venturing onto any private lands, and to check before collecting in county or city parks (although most are not likely to have any official policy).

Happy Hunting!



Local Mushroom aficionado, Richard Gaines, is offering several weekend workshops during November at sites on the WA and OR coasts. Additional information is available here.

General comments and suggestions for improving your collections. If you received a comment to the effect that your collection was not up to upper-division quality standards, this doesn't mean that you definitely won't receive upper division credit, but rather that your work needs significant improvements in order for you to receive upper division credit.


News Flash! Little "Bolete" popped out at 6:30 PM on Nov 9th at home. Angel and Paul are proud parents of a beautiful little girl, Daphne Jacinta Przybylowicz. Due to inhaled amniotic fluid containing meconium, we'll be spending the next week at St. Pete's hospital maing sure she doesn't get an infection. Here's a few pics.

Readings for Week 7 -- Mycorrhizal Ecology III
Novel Nutrient Sources and Interactions between Saprotrophic and Mycorrhizal Fungi

  1. Read, D.J. and J. Perez-Moreno. 2003. Mycorrhizas and nutrient cycling in ecosystems -- a journey towards relevance? New Phytologist 157: 475-492.
  2. Cairney, John W.G. and Andrew A. Meharg. 2002. Interactions between ectomycorrhizal fungi and soil saprotrophs:  implications for decomposition of organic matter in soils and degradation of organic pollutants in the rhizosphere. Canadian Journal of Botany 80: 803-809.
  3. Leake, J.R., D.P. Donnelly, and L. Boddy. 2002. Interactions between ecto-mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. Pp 345-372 in van der Heijden, M.G.A. and I. Sanders, ed. Mycorrhizal Ecology. Ecological Studies Vol. 157. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. A handout with final versions of the figures will be provided in class.

Here's the graphic showing labeled phosphorous movement between a saprotrophic and a mycorhizzal association.

And the Lindahl article that Steve discussed in his lecture today.

Study Questions #6 and Quiz #5 Be sure to look at both sides.

Key for Quiz 3 , please conserve paper and read on-line if possible


Field Trip Monday will survey a tract of land near Ocean Shores for a group trying to preserve it. Assemble at the usual place (C-lot) at 8:45 AM. Bring raingear etc, especially compasses and watches. If it's raining, assemble at the loading dock of Lab I.


Readings for Week 8 -- Plant Pathogenic Fungi

  1. Hansen, Everett M. and Jeffrey K. Stone. 2005. Impacts of plant pathogenic fungi on plant communities. Pp 461-474 in Dighton, John, James F. White, and Peter Oudemans, ed. The fungal community: its organization and role in the ecosystem, 3rd ed. CRC Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, Florida.
  2. Hansen, E.M. and Ellen Michaels Goheen. 2000. Phellinus weirii and other native root pathogens as determinants of forest structure and process in western North America. Annual Reviews of Phytopathology 38: 515-539.

Readings for Week 8 -- Cultivation of Fungi

  1. Nout, M.J.R. and K.E.Aidoo. 2002. Asian Fungal Fermented Food from The Mycota X: Industrial Applications. D.Osiewacz (Ed.) © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
  2. Nout, M.J.R. and J.L. Kiers. 2005. Tempe fermentation, innovation and functionality: update into the third millenium.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 98, 789–805

Key for Quiz 4 , please conserve paper and read on-line if possible


   Week 9 Announcements

Monday— 9 AM to noon: Tempeh Cultivation workshop/ Fungal cultivation lecture in Cedar room and Kitchen in Longhouse. Review readings for week 8 above and Ch 14 in Fungal Biology Check out the cultivation info links on the Weblinks page.


Tuesday—as scheduled
WednesdayStart at 8:30 AM (as usual, not as in revised schedule for last two weeks)

Daphne, Angel and myself send our thanks for the good wishes, the card, the plants, and the matsutake. See pics on Daphne's page


Since the readings column is so full this week, the handouts will be listed here.

Updated schedule for last two weeks

Here's the required guidelines to follow for submitting your culture collections.

Key for Quiz 5 , please conserve paper and read on-line if possible


Readings for Week 9 -- Fungal Phylogenetics

Central to any discussion of taxonomy, classification, phylogenetics, etc. is, ‘what is a species?’ You should be gaining an increasing appreciation for the ways in which fungi differ from other organisms. For instance, it isn’t at all clear what an “individual” fungus is. This enters into how we conceive of species within the Fungi. So start the Week 9 reading with this article on species concepts in the mushroom fungi.

Molecular phylogenetics is causing many changes in how we think about relationships among fungi. These two papers provide some background on the methods involved.

  • Bridge, Paul. 2002. The history and application of molecular mycology. Mycologist 16(3): 90-99.
  • Down, Graeme. 2002. Fungal family trees: finding relationships from molecular data. Mycologist 16(2): 51-58.

Some of the phylogenetics papers can be pretty heavy going. Here’s one that deals with a small number of chanterelle species and is reasonably accessible. The commentary summarizes the main take-home messages.

The last issue of Mycologia (the journal of the Mycological Society of America) this year will be devoted to updates of where things stand in assembling the fungal tree of life (AFTOL). Unfortunately it will not be available until after this program has ended. However, the following paper will give you a sense of what sorts of things we think we’re learning from the molecular data and analyses. You needn’t necessarily read the whole thing but you should spend some time perusing it, especially Figure 2 (which you won’t be expected to have committed to memory for the lab practical!).

This article illustrates the impact that these findings about relationships can have on their names. Not available as PDF file; hard copies will be provided.

  • Redhead, Scott A. 2000. Bully for Coprinus: a story of manure, minutiae, and molecules. McIlvainea 14(2): 5-14.

BONUS SELECTION for those of you especially keen on lichen-fungi:


Your collections and associated material are due on Wed at 9 AM.

The completed draft of your self eval and your portfolio are due on Friday by noon, put in a box outside your faculty's office (see eval workshop handout for additional details).


Bring a calculator to the exam on Tuesday.

LICHEN FINAL EXAMS are available outside Paul's office door. Total possible points was 175. Circled numbers at the bottom of each page are page totals.

Here's the handout for the self-eval workshop on Wed. You need to bring a draft of your self eval to the workshop, detailed instructions and outline are given in the handout.

You will need a copy of the program description to complete your self evaluation.

Here's the key to the lichen final exam. Please read it online to save paper.

Here's the key to the mushroom final exam. Please read it online to save paper.


New Ramaria Book

I (“I” being Mike Beug) want to alert you to the beautiful new book:

Ronald L. Exeter, Lorelei Norvell & Efren Cazares "Ramaria of the Pacific Northwestern United States", US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Salem District, 1717 Fabry Road SE, Salem, Oregon 97306, November 2006 ISBN-13: 978-0-9791310-0-4; ISBN-10: 0-9791310-0-6.

The cost is $27 and the soft-bound book is 157 pages with lots of color photographs (193+). Phone orders can be placed at 1-503-375-5646 or it can be ordered by mail at the Fabry Road address above.

I (“I” being me) saw a copy this weekend and the photos are of excellent quality -- looks like it will be a very useful book. ST


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