Citation and Style Guides
Modern Language Association
Things to remember...
- MLA style requires that you begin each entry in your works cited list as alphabetically, unnumbered and flush with the left margin of your page, and subsequent lines of the same entry to be indented five spaces.
- Be sure to double space all lines within your works cited page, and use only a single space between periods.
Creating a works cited list in the style of the MLA only requires slight variations on the styles of the APA. Citations are to include authors, book titles which are underlined and publication information; things such as publisher, place and date. Unlike the APA however, MLA dictates that you should capitalize all major words in book titles, excluding such things as article titles, coordinating conjunctions and prepositions.
A book with one author
Moore, Megan. The Plight of Modern Man: A RetrospectiveAnalysis. New York: Knopf, 2002.
NOTE: If the selected work is an edition other than the first, be sure to include the edition number in your citation.
Dorsey, Danielle D. Individuals in Limbo. 3rd ed. Olympia: Everpress, 2004.
A book by two or three authors
NOTE: If a selected work is authored by two to three individuals then be sure to list the first author by their last name and the rest by their first, also being aware of the order in which they appear on the work itself.
Moore, Megan, and Danielle Dorsey. The Effects of Man and the Limbo Stick. Seattle: Bellowing Ark, 2001.
A book by more than three authors
NOTE: Use et al to represent all the other authors except the first one listed in the order on the original title page.
Johnson, J. P., et al. Playing Party Games. Chicago: Oxford Press, 1999.
Two or more books by the same author
NOTE: After making your first entry, replace the authors name with three hyphens and a period. Be sure to list the citations alphabetically by title.
Rose, Jacob. Being the Ravioli. Everett: Projects Press, 2003.
---. Letting the Ravioli In. Everett: Projects Press, 2001.
An edited book
Citing the Authors Work
Beeman, Matt. Living Italian: New York, New Jersey and New Cars. Ed. Jacob Rose. New York: Bellowing Ark, 2003.
Citing the Editors Work
Rose, Jacob, ed. Living Italian: New York, New Jersey and New Cars. By Matthew Beeman. New York: Bellowing Ark, 2003.
A Selection in an Anthology
NOTE: Remember to cite all page numbers of the work, even if you are referencing only one page.
Daniels, J. "Mineral Spirits." Drinks Through Time. Ed. Johnny Walker. Seattle: Bellowing Ark Press, 1999. 124-135.
A Multivolume Work
NOTE: If all the volumes of go by the same title, then you need only cite the volume you referenced.
Rose, Jacob. Computers and the Humanities. Vol 3. Seattle: U Press, 1974.
NOTE: If you have used all the volumes, then you must cite all of them as one entity.
Rose, Jacob. Computers and the Humanities. 4 Vols. Seattle: U Press, 1974.
NOTE: If a single volume in a multivolume work goes by an individual title, then you do not need to mention the other volumes.
Lord, Matthew. Age of Recording. Everett: EVCC Press, 2002.
Hundessmon, Geargia. Moving to Sweden. Trans. Englebert Humperdink. New York: Far Away Press, 2002.
An article in a reference book
NOTE: For signed articles, be sure to include the authors name in the citation, as well if the reference book is relatively unknown then remember to include all publication data. If popularity of a a work is unknown then default to include all publication data.
Thornton, Billy B. "Directing Films." A-Z Encyclopedia of Film. 5th ed. New York: Oxford UP, 1999.
NOTE: For unsigned articles in popular encyclopedias, then no publication info is needed. Just begin the citation with the article title as it appears in the reference book.
A government publication
NOTE: If no author is given then cite the work beginning with the name of the government and then the department.
United States. Office of Internal Revenue. 2002 Library Revenue Handbook. Washington: GPO, 2002.
If you have to cite articles in you reference list then be sure to include author names, titles in quotations, underlined periodical titles, dates of publication, pages in which the article resides and be sure not to use the abbreviations of p. or pp. Also, dates of publication are abbreviated, although you must write them out in full within your paper.
An article in a weekly magazine (signed/unsigned)
Cowan, John. "Going the Distance." Seattle Monthly 6 Nov. 2002: 34-38.
"Retrofitting the Pipeline." Time 12 Sep. 1999" 34.
An article in a monthly magazine
Rose, Jacob. "Careers in the Digital World." Computer User Nov. 1999: 34.
An article in a newspaper (signed/unsigned)
Evans, D. J. "Building a Balanced Library." New York Times 12 Apr. 1972, early ed.: A2+.
"Politically Taboo." Seattle Times 12 Nov. 1999, sec. B: 3+.
"Relatively Unknown." Editorial. South Whidbey Record 4 May 2003, Wed. ed.: B3.
A book review
NOTE: In this case, start your citation with the name of the critic, followed by the book title and then the author, plus the publication information.
Cowan, Jimmy. "Unfounded Rhetoric." Rev. of White House Mayhem: Bush, Cheney and Other Tales of Deviance, by Bill Smithers. Seattle Times 12 Jun. 2003: C23.
Finderton, James. "Dealing with Racism." Humanities Seminar, Dept. of Humanities. Evergreen State College, 23 Nov. 2003.
An Interview (personal/published)
Spielberg, Steven. Personal Interview. 23 Dec. 2002.
Winfrey, Oprah. Telephone Interview. 24 Dec. 2002.
Johnson, J. P. "Oprah Winfrey Tells All." Contemporary America 12.3 (Fall 1986): 12-27.
A Letter (personal/published)
King, Steven. Letter to the author. 13 Dec. 1995.
King, Steven. "Letter to J. P. Cowan." 13 Sep. 1999. Steven King. By Bill Smith. New York: Findleton Press, 2000. 23.
NOTE: Generally the title will be included along with the director and distributor, but also you have the choice of including other useful information like main actor names.
Gilgamesh. Dir. Bill Evans. Perf. Tom Cruise, Dale Burnton, Nicole Kidman, and James Priest.MGM, 1991.
A Videotape/DVD/ or Laserdisc
NOTE: Cite this medium like you would a film but be sure to include the format name before the distributors title.
A Radio/Television Program
"Who Done It." Writ. Jason Belcheck. Perf. James Burger. Mystery Theatre. KAOS. Evergreen State Col. 12 Dec. 1999.
Electronic sources can be a tricky thing to cite correctly, and the MLA has some particular guidelines that can further complicate the practice. Because of the nature of most electronic mediums, the MLA suggests that you include the date of the publication as well as the date that you retrieved the information. Going further, the MLA also suggests that you make a print copy of the electronic format so that you can preserve what may change in the future. It should also be mentioned that if you cannot find all the needed information that you shouldn't panic, the MLA recognizes that many times online mediums do not give reference information, so they suggest that you gather as much data you can and include that into your citation.
NOTE: It is very important that you pay attention to the web address you give in your citation, be sure include all access mode identifiers such as http, ftp, gopher, telnet or news.
A web page or home page
Gimbel, D. D. Jim's Surfing Page. 13 Apr. 1999 <http://www.jimsurf.com/>.
Jeeves, Bart. Home Page. 23 July 2003 <http://www.tholemew.co.uk/>
An online book
Chaucer, Geoffrey. Clandestine Knight. London, 1765. 3 Apr. 2002 <gopher://gopher.vt.edu:10024/22/178/3>.
An article in an online scholarly journal, newspaper or magazine
Scholarly Journal Online
Dorsey, Danielle. "Standing Against Wit." American Woman 12.2 (1995): 12 pp. 15 July 2003 <http://muse.jhu.gimbel.edu/forty/howard.htm>.
Jobs, Steven. "Bill Gates Finally Pays." Seattle Weekly Online 21 Oct. 1999. 23 Nov. 2001 <http://seattleweekly.com/jobs/gates.html>.
Evans, D. J. "The Going has Gotten Tougher." Life 12 Feb. 2003. 4 Apr. 2004. <http://www.anything.edu/gov/example.html>.
An article in a an online encyclopedia
"Hemingway, Ernest." Britannica Online. Vers. 45.3. Nov. 1999. Encyclopedia Britannica. 12 May 2003 <http://www.anything.edu/gov/example.html>.
Berhard, Jim. E-mail to the author. 23 June 1998.