Treaty conflicts and environmental cooperation
between Native American and rural White communities
Zoltan Charles Grossman
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2002
529 pages; ISBN: 0-493-76089-X
Adviser: William Cronon
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- The dissertation compares alliances of Native Americans and rural whites
(particularly ranchers, farmers, and fishers) in the 1970s-2000s in Washington,
Oregon, Nevada, Montana, South Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin. It asserts
that the level of interethnic cooperation is a key element in the success
or failure of a movement for protection of a multiethnic rural area. The
dissertation explores how and why certain groups of rural whites and Native
peoples joined to protect a natural resource (such as fish or water) that
had previously been a source of conflict between them. A perceived outside
threat--such as a mine, dam, power plant, transmission line, or flight
or bombing range--facilitated new bonds between local Native and non-Native
communities. The alliances redrew perceived community boundaries to define
neighboring ethnic "outsiders" as "insiders" who are
dependent on common natural resources or a land base. These "geographies
of inclusion" were more pronounced in areas that had experienced the
most intense interethnic conflict over natural resources. The "particularist"
assertion of Native American identity had not been in contradiction to
a " universalist" project to bring together Native and non-Native
communities. Interethnic unity strategies based solely on universalist
commonalties (such as environmental protection) tend to fail without a
concurrent process of equalization that respects particularist differences
(such as Native treaty rights). Most strategies for ethnic conflict management
focus on the national scale and the common bond of political citizenship.
Ethnic conflict managers have not paid adequate attention to local or regional
territorial identity as one strategy for addressing socially based conflict
in multiethnic settings. A territorially based, multiethnic "place
membership" may be more effective than "state citizenship"
in lessening ethnic conflict and increasing cooperation between local communities.
- TABLE OF CONTENTS
- List of maps
- List of interviews
- I. Salmon, Dams and Water in the Pacific Northwest
- II. Reflection on Ethnic Conflict Management
- III. Military Projects in the Great Basin and Upper Midwest
- IV. Reflections on Interethnic Movements and Environmental Justice
- V. Ranchers, Farmers, and Indians on the Northern Plains
- VI. Reflections on Sharing Sacred Land
- VII. Fishing and Mining in Northern Wisconsin
- VIII. Reflections on Exclusion and Inclusion
- SELECTED DISSERTATION-RELATED ARTICLES / PRESENTATIONS
- Unlikely Alliances: Idle No More and Building Bridges Through Native Sovereignty,
- on Z, Counterpunch, Unsettling America (2013)
- "Unlikely Alliances: Treaty
Conflicts and Environmental
- Cooperation Between Native
American and Rural
- White Communities,"
Powerpoint lecture at
- Association of American Geographers (AAG),
- Chicago 2006; U.W.-Stevens Point Earth Day 2005,
- and talk at U.-W-Eau Claire Faculty Forum 2006.
- Article in American Indian
Culture and Research Journal
- (AICRJ), Vol. 29, No. 4 (2005).
a Common Home: Native/non-Native
Against Mining Companies in Wisconsin,"
- With Dr. Al Gedicks in In
the Way of Development: Indigenous Peoples,
Society, & the Environment. See map.
- (London: Zed Press, 2004).
mine victory won by a historic alliance,"
- with Debra McNutt in the Eau Claire Leader-Telegram (Nov. 2,
- and other websites and papers.
- "Cowboy and Indian Alliances in the
- Agricultural History (Spring 2003 , Vol. 77 no. 2).
- Effects of White Racial Advantages in Environmental Alliances
- on Wisconsin Ho-Chunk/farmer alliances against low-level jet flights,
- bombing range, and Perrier, at Association of American Geographers
- annual conference, Los Angeles, 2002.
- "Place membership" in
ethnic conflict management: the case of Native Americans
- and white ranchers/farmers,
on rural environmental alliances in Oregon, Montana,
- and South Dakota, at Association of American Geographers (AAG)
- annual conference, New York, 2001.
- Geographies of Inclusion: Interethnic
Alliances for Environmental
- Protection, on Wisconsin spearfishing
and mining disputes,
- at Association of American Geographers (AAG) annual conference,
- Pittsburgh, 2000. Winner of 2000 AAG American Indian Speciality Group
- student paper competition. Also at WestLakes AAG, (Northern Illinois
- University, DeKalb), and Midwest Sociological Society conference (Chicago).
- "Let's Not Create Evilness for This River: Interethnic Environmental
- Alliances of Native Americans and Rural Whites in Northern Wisconsin."
- In Forging
Radical Alliances Across Difference: Coalition Politics for the New
Jill M. Bystydzienski & Steven P. Schacht, eds. (Boulder:
- Rowman & Littlefield, 2001).
- Removal Reversed: Native/non-Native joint management
of reclaimed lands,
on Kickapoo Valley, Sauk Prairie, and Crandon mine sites
- in Wisconsin. PowerPoint at Association of American Geographers
- (AAG) annual conference, New Orleans, 2003.
- Native environmental
justice and the Crandon mine (PowerPoint).
- Lecture with Kenneth Fish (Menominee). Summer Institute on Environmental
- (U.W.-Madison) and Western Mining Activists Network conference (Albuquerque).
- Wisconsin's Native/non-Native
anti-mining alliance, with
- Dr. Al Gedicks in Cultural Survival Quarterly, 2001.
- "From Enemies to Allies:
Native Americans and Whites Join Forces
- in Wisconsin,"
with Debra McNutt, in ColorLines, 2001, and
- in Multiracial Formations: New Instruments
for Social Change.
- Native and Environmental
Movements," in Z magazine (Boston), 1995.
- Chippewa treaty rights issues,