These links will take you to the individual Bibliographic Citations of each chapter.

Physical Environment
Plant-Animal Interactions 
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Human Ecology 
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Full Bibliographic Citations from Monteverde: Ecology and Conservation of a Tropical Cloud Forest

Agren, J., and D. W. Schemske.  1991.  Pollination by deceit in a Neotropical monoecious herb, Begonia involucrata.  Biotropica 23:235-241.

---.  1993.  Outcrossing rate and inbreeding depression in two annual monoecious herbs, Begonia hirsuta and B. semiovata.  Evolution 47:125-135.

---.  1995.  Sex allocation in the monoecious herb Begonia semiovata. Evolution 49:121-130.

Alcock, J.  1988.  The mating system of three territorial butterflies in Costa Rica.  Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 26:89-97.

---.  1989.  The mating system of Brechmorhoga pertinax (Hagen):  The evolution of brief patrolling bouts in a "territorial" Dragonfly (Odonata: Libellulidae).
  Journal of Insect Behavior 2(1):49-62.

Alcock, J., and A. Forsyth.  1988.  Post-copulatory aggression toward their mates by males of the rove beetle Leistotrophus versicolor (Coleoptera:
  Staphylinidae).  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 22:303-308.

Andrade, J. L.  1996.  Habitat, CO2 uptake and growth for the CAM epiphytic cactus Epiphyllum phyllanthus in a Panamanian tropical forest.  Journal of
  Tropical Ecology 12:291-306.

Baker, H. G.  1976.  "Mistake" pollination as a reproductive system with special reference to the Caricaceae.  Pages 161-169 in J. Burley and B. T. Styles,
  editors.  Tropical trees: variation, breeding and conservation.  Academic Press, New York, New York, USA.

Barnard, C. J., and J. Fitzsimmons.  1988.  Kin recognition and mate choice in mice: the effects of kinship, familiarity and social interference on intersexual
  interaction.  Animal Behavior 36:1078-1090.

Bawa, K. S.  1980.  Mimicry of male by female flowers and intrasexual competition for pollinators in Jacaratia dolichaula (D. Smith) Woodson
  (Caricaceae).  Evolution 34:467-474.

Bigelow, S., and P. Kukle.  1991.  The Ferns of Monteverde. 1st edition. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica.

Bohlman, S., T. J. Matelson, and N. M. Nadkarni.  In press.  Moisture and temperature patterns of dead organic matter in the canopy and soils on the
  forest floor of a montane cloud forest.  Biotropica.

Boo, E.  1990.  Ecotourism: the potentials and pitfalls.  edition. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

Bronstein, J. L.  1986.  Coevolution and constraints in a neotropical fig- pollinator wasp mutalism.  Dissertation.  University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,

---.  1987.  Maintenance of species-specificity in a Neotropical fig-pollinator wasp mutalism.  Oikos 48:39-46.

---.  1988.  Mutualism, antagonism, and the fig-pollinator interaction.  Ecology 69:1298-1302.

---.  1988.  Predators of fig wasps.  Biotropica 20:215-219.

---.  1988.  Limits to fruit production in a monecious fig: consequences of an obligate mutualism.  Ecology 69:207-214.

---.  1991.  The nonpollinating wasp fauna of Ficus pertusa: exploitation of a mutualism?  Oikos 61(2):175-186.

---.  1992.  Seed predators as mutualists: ecology and evolution of the fir/pollinator interaction.  Pages 2-44 in E. Bernays, editor.  Insect-Plant
  Interactions.  CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Bronstein, J. L., and K. Hoffman.  1987.  Spatial and temporal variation in frugivory at a Neotropical fig, Ficus pertusa.  Oikos 49:261-268.

Bruijnzeel, L. A., and J. Proctor.  1993.  Hydrology and Biogeochemistry of Tropical Montane "Cloud Forests":  What Do We Really Know?  Tropical Montane
  Cloud Forests Symposium and Workshop :.

Bruijnzeel, L. A., M. J. Waterloo, J. Proctor, A. T. Kuiters, and B. Kotterink.1993.  Hydrological observations in montane rain forests on Gunung Silam,
  Sabah, Malaysia, with special reference to the 'Massenerhebung' effect. Journal of Ecology 81:145-167.

Busby, W. H.  1987.  Flowering phenology and density-dependent pollination success in Cephaelis elata (Rubiaceae).  Dissertation.  University of
  Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

Buskirk, R. E.  1975.  Aggressive display and orb defence in a colonial spider, Metabus gravidus.  Animal Behavior 23(2):560-567.

---.  1975.  Coloniality, activity patterns and feeding in a tropical orb-weaving spider.  Ecology 56(6):1314-1328.

---.  1986.  Orb-weaving spiders in aggregations modify individual web structure.  The Journal of Arachnology 14:259-265.

Buskirk, R. E., and K. J. Sherman.  1985.  The influence of larval ecology on oviposition and mating strategies in dragonflies.  The Florida Entomologist

Buskirk, R., and W. H. Buskirk.  1976.  Changes in arthropod abundance in a highland Costa Rican forest.  American Midland Naturalist 95:288-298.

Buskirk, W. H.  1973.  Four new migrants for Costa Rica.  Condor 75:363-364.

---.  1976.  Social systems in a tropical forest avifauna.  American Naturalist 110:293-310.

---.  1978.  Frugivory by Swallow-tailed Kites in Costa Rica.  The Auk 95:767-768.

---.  1981.  Ochraceous Wren fails to respond to mobbing calls in an interspecific flock.   Wilson Bulletin 93:278-279.

Cardosa Da Silva, J. M., C. Uhl, and K. G. Murray.  1996.  Plant succession, landscape management and the ecology of frugivorous birds in abandoned
  Amazonian pastures.  Conservation Biology 10:491-503.

Chamberlain Gallegos, F.  1993.  The Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve Chapter. Pages  in,.  Leadership for Environment and Development Program.
  Tropical Science Center, Costa Rica.

Colwell, R. K.  1992.  Making sense of ecological complexity:  a personal and conceptual retrospective.  Biotropica 24:226-232.

Cruden, R. W., S. Kinsman, R. E. Stockhouse Jr., and Y. B. Linhart.  1976. Pollination, fecundity, and the distribution of moth-flowered plants.
  Biotropica 8:204-210.

Crump, M. L.  1984.  Ontogenetic changes in vulnerability to predation in tadpoles of Hyla pseudopuma. Herpetologica 40:265-271.

---.  1986.  Homing and site fidelity in a Neotropical frog, Atelopus varius  (Bufonidae).  Copeia 1986:438-444.

---.  1988.  Aggression in harlequin frogs: male-male competion and a possible conflict of interest between the sexes.  Animal Behavior 36:1064-1077.

---.  1989.  Temporal variation in the dispersion of a tropical anuran.  Copeia 1:209-211.

---.  1989.  Effect of habitat drying on developmental time and size at metamorphosis in Hyla pseudopuma.  Copeia 3:794-797.

---.  1989.  Life history consequences of feeding versus non-feeding in a facultatively non-feeding toad larvae.  Oecologia 78:486-489.

---.  1990.  Possible enhancement of growth in tadpoles through cannibalism. Copeia 2:560-564.

---.  1991.  Choice of oviposition site and egg load assessment by a treefrog. Herpetologica 47:308-315.

Crump, M. L., F. R. Hensley, and K. L. Clark.  1992.  Apparent decline of the Golden Toad: underground or extinct?  Copeia 2:413-420.

Crump, M. L., and J. A. Pounds.  1985.  Lethal parasitism of an aposematic anuran (Atelopus varius) by Notochaeta bufonivora (Diptera:Sarcophagidae).
  Journal of Parasitology 71:588-591.

Crump, M. L., and D. S. Townsend.  1990.  Random mating by size in a Neotropical treefrog, Hyla pseudopuma.  Herpetologica 46:383-386.

Cutler, D. E., R. R. Bennett, R. D. Stevenson, and R. H. White.  1995.  Feeding behavior in the nocturnal moth Manduca sexta is mediated mainly by blue
  receptors, but where are they located in the retina?  The Journal of Experimental Biology 198:1909-1917.

Daniels, G. S., and F. G. Stiles.  1979.  The heliconia taxa of Costa Rica: keys and descriptions.  Brenesia 15 supplement:1-150.

Daniels, J. D., and R. O. Lawton.  1991.  Habitat and host preferences of Ficus crassiuscula, a Neotropical strangling fig of the lower-montane rain forest.
  Journal of Ecology, UK 79:129-141.

---.  1993.  A natural history of strangling by Ficus crassiuscula in Costa Rican lower montane rain forest.  Selbyana 14:25-29.

Diller O'Dell, G. W.  unpublished.  Strategy and survival: a tropical liana Mucuna urens in secondary growths in Monteverde, Puntarenas, Costa Rica.:.

Dinerstein, E.  1983.  Reproductive ecology of fruit bats and seasonality of fruit production in a Costa Rican cloud forest.  Dissertation.  University of
  Washington, Seattle,WA, USA

---.  1986.  Reproductive ecology of fruit bats and the seasonality of fruit production in a Costa Rican cloud forest.  Biotropica 18:307-318.

Fauth, J. E., B. I. Crother, and J. B. Slowinski.  1989.  Elevational patterns of species richness, eveneness, and abundance of the Costa Rican leaf-litter
  herpetofauna.  Biotropica 21:178-185.

Feinsinger, P.  1977.  Notes on the hummingbirds of Monteverde, Cordillera de Tilaran, Costa Rica.   Wilson Bulletin 89:159-165.

---.  1977.  Approaches to nectarivore-plant interactions in the New World. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 60:285-319.

---.  1978.  Ecological interactions between plants and hummingbirds in a successional tropical community.  Ecological Monographs 48:269-287.

---.  1983.  Coevolution and pollination.  Pages 282-310 in D. J. Futuyma and M. Slatkin, editors.  Coevolution.  Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

---.  1987.  Effects of plant species on each others pollination: is community structure influenced?  TREE 2:123-126.

---.  1988.  The long and short of hummingbird bills.  International Wildlife 18(4):14-17.

Feinsinger, P., J. H. Beach, Y. B. Linhart, W. H. Busby, and K. G. Murray. 1987.  Disturbance, pollinator predictability, and pollination success among
  Costa Rican cloud forest plants.  Ecology 68:1294-1305.

Feinsinger, P., and W. H. Busby.  1987.  Pollen carryover: experimental comparisons between morphs of Palicourea lasiorrachis (Rubiaceae), a
  distylous, bird-pollinated tropical treelet.  Oecologia 73:231-235.

Feinsinger, P., W. H. Busby, K. G. Murray, J. H. Beach, W. Z. Pounds, and Y. B. Linhart.  1988.  Mixed support for spatial heterongeneity in species
  interactions: hummingbirds in a tropical disturbance mosaic.  American Naturalist 131(1):33-57.

Feinsinger, P., W. H. Busby, and H. M. Tiebout.  1988.  Effects of indiscriminate foraging by tropical hummingbirds on pollination and plant
  reproductive success: experiments with two tropical treelets (Rubiaceae). Oecologia 76:471-474.

Feinsinger, P., and S. B. Chaplin.  1975.  On the relationship between wing disc loading and foraging strategy in hummingbirds.  American Naturalist 109:217-

Feinsinger, P., and R. K. Colwell.  1978.  Community organization among neotropical nectar-feeding birds.  American Zoologist 18:779-795.

Feinsinger, P., R. K. Colwell, J. Terbourgh, and S. B. Chaplin.  1979. Elevation and the morphology, flight energetics, and foraging ecology of
  tropical hummingbirds.  American Naturalist 113:481-497.

Feinsinger, P., K. G. Murray, S. Kinsman, and W. H. Busby.  1986.  Floral neighborhood and pollination success in four humming bird-pollinated cloud
  forest plant species.  Ecology 67:449-464.

Feinsinger, P., L. A. Swarm, and J. A. Wolfe.  1985.  Nectar-feeding birds on Trinidad and Tobago:  comparison of diverse and depauperate guilds.
  Ecological Monographs 55(1):1-28.

Feinsinger, P., and H. M. Tiebout.  1987.  Impacto de la competencia inter-especifica en la estructura de las comunidades: colibries y las plantas que
  ellos polinizan.  Memorias III Congreso Ornitologia Neotropical :23-27.

---.  1991.  Competition among plants sharing hummingbird pollinators: laboratory experiments on a mechanism.  Ecology 72:1946-1952.

Feinsinger, P., H. M. Tiebout, and B. E. Young.  1991.  Do tropical bird-pollinated plants exhibit density-dependent interactions? Field experiments.
  Ecology 72:1953-1963.

Feinsinger, P., H. M. Tiebout III, B. E. Young, and K. G. Murray. 1992. New perspectives on neotropical plant-hummingbird interactions. Acta XX congressus
  Internationalis Ornithologici :1605-1611.

Feinsinger, P.  1976.  Organizaton of a tropical guild of nectarivorous birds. Ecological Monographs 46:257-291.

Fenster, C. B.  1991.  Selection on floral morphology by hummingbirds. Biotropica 23:98-101.

Findley, J. S., and D. E. Wilson.  1983.  Are bats rare in tropical Africa? Biotropica 15:299-303.

Fogden, M., and P. Fogden.  1984.  All that glitters may be toad.  Natural History 84/5:47-50.

Fogden, M. P. L.  1994.  An annotated checklist of the birds of Monteverde and  Penas Blancas.  edition. Imprenta, LIL, S.A., San Jose, Costa Rica.

Forsyth, A., and J. Alcock.  1990.  Female mimicry and resource defense polygyny by males of a tropical rove beetle, Leistotrophus versicolor (Coleoptera:
  Staphylinidae).  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 26:325-330.

---.  1990.  Prey luring as alternative foraging tactics of the fly catching rove beetle Leistotrophus versicolor (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).  Journal
  of Insect Behavior 3:703-718.

Gardner, A. L.  1970.  The distributional status of some Costa Rican bats. Journal of Mammalogy 51:712-729.

Geisbert, E. F.  1989.  A new species of Strangalia Audinet-Serville (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Monteverde, Costa Rica.  Pan-Pacific
  Entomologist 65(4):463-467.

Gibbs, J. P., M. L. J. Hunter, and S. M. Melvin.  1993.  Snag availability and communities of cavity nesting birds in tropical versus temperate forests.
  Biotropica 25:236-241.

Gibson, J. P., and P. K. Diggle.  1997.  Structural analysis of female and hermaphroditic flowers of a gynodioecious tree, Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae).
  American Journal of Botany 84:298-307.

Gibson, J. P., and N. T. Wheelwright.  1995.  Influence of avian seed dispersal on genetic structure in a population of a tropical tree, Ocotea tenera
  (Lauraceae).  Oecologia 103:49-54.

---.  1996.  Mating system dynamics of Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae), a gynodioecious tropical tree.  American Journal of Botany 83:890-894.

Giesbert, E. F.  1989.  A new species of Strangalia Audinet-Serville (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Monteverde, Costa Rica.  Pan-Pacific
  Entomologist 65(4):463-467.

Giesbert, E. F., and F. T. Hovore.  1989.  Stenochariergus, a new genus with two new species (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae) from Central America.  Pan-Pacific
  Entomologist 65:348-351.

Gottsberger, G.  1989.  Comments on flower evolution and beetle pollination in the genera Annona and Rollinia (Annonaceae).  Plant Systematic Evolution

Gottsberger, G., and I. Silberbauer-Gottsberger.  1991.  Olfactory and visual attraction of Erioscelis emarginata (Cyclocephalini, Dynastinae) to the
  inflorescences of Philodendron selloum (Araceae).  Biotropica 23:23-28.

Green, G. C.  1989.  Conservation projects in Latin America:  an analysis to determine the ingredients for success.  Dissertation.  Oxford University

Guindon, W.  1993.  Tales and Trails.  Tapir Tracks 8(1):8-9.

Guyer, C.  1990.  The Herpetofauna of La Selva, Costa Rica.  Pages 371-385 in A. Gentry, editor.  Four neotropical rainforests.  Yale University Press, .

Haber, W. A.  1978.  Evolutionary Ecology of tropical mimetic butterflies (Lepidoptera:  Ithomiinae).  Dissertation.  University of Minnesota

---.  1983.  Solanum ochraceo-ferrugineum.  Pages 324-328 in D. Janzen, editor.  Costa Rican Natural History.  The University of Chicago Press,
  Chicago,Illinois, USA.

---.  1983.  Sphingid checklist.  Pages 645-650 in D. Janzen, editor.  Costa Rican Natural History.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago,Illinois,USA.

Haber, W. A., W. Zuchowski, and E. Bello.  1996.  An introduction to cloud forest trees: Monteverde, Costa Rica.  edition. La Nacion, San Jose, Costa

Hartshorn, G. S.  1983.  Plants.  Pages 125-144 in D. H. Janzen, editor. Costa Rican Natural History.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Hayes, M., and R. K. Laval.  1989.  The mammals of Monteverde (Mamiferos de Monteverde). 2nd edition. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica.

Hayes, M. P.  1983.  Predation on the adults and prehatching stages of glass frogs (Centrolenidae).  Biotropica 15:74-76.

Holdridge, L. R.  1967.  Life zone ecology.  edition. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica.

Holdrige, L. A.  1966.  The life zone system.  Adansonia 6:199-203.

Holl, K. D., G. C. Daily, and P. R. Ehrlich.  1993.  The fertility plateau in Costa Rica:  a review of causes and remedies.  Environmental Conservation 20:

---.  1995.  Knowledge and perceptions in Costa Rica regarding environment, population, and biodiversity issues.  Conservation Biology 9:1548-1558.

Hovore, F. T.  1987.  A new genus and species of Cerambycidae from Costa Rica (Coleoptera).  Pan-Pacific Entomologist 63:151-154.

---.  1989.  Records and Descriptions of Costa Rican Cerambycidae, Part 1:  the Turrialba Valley.  Insecta Mundi 3(4):249-260.

---.  1992.  A new genus and species of flightless longhorned beetle from Central America (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).  Insecta Mundi 6:37-41.

Hovore, F. T., and E. F. Giesbert.  1990.  The genus Pronuba Thomson in Central America (Coleptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Heteropsini).  Revista
  Bras. Ent. 34:789-794.

Ingram, S. W.  1989.  The abundance, vegetative composition and distribution of epiphytes in a Costa Rican lower montane rain forest.  Thesis.  University of
  California, Santa Barbara, CA

Ingram, S. W., and N. M. Nadkarni.  1993.  Composition and distribution of epiphytic organic matter in a neotropical cloud forest, Costa Rica.
  Biotropica 25:370-383.

Jacobson, S. K.  1983.  Short season of the Golden Toad.  International Wildlife 13:25-27.

---.  1985.  Reproductive behavior and male mating success in two species of glass frogs (Centrolenidae).  Herpetologica 41:396-404.

---.  1991.  Evaluation model for developing, implementing, and assessing conservation education programs:  examples from Belize and Costa Rica.
  Environmental Management 15(2):143-150.

Jacobson, S. K., and J. J. Vandenberg.  1991.  Reproductive ecology of the endangered Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes).  Journal of Herpetology 25:321-327.

Janos, D. P.  1993.  Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrihaizae of epiphytes. Mycorrhiza 4:1-4.

Janzen, D. H.  1976.  The depression of reptile biomass by large herbivores. American Naturalist 110:371-400.

---.  1983.  Insects. Introduction.  Pages 619-645 in D. H. Janzen, editor. Costa Rican natural history.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Kasomenakis, S.  1990.  A trip to Monteverde Biological Preserve, Costa Rica. American Orchid Society Bulletin 59(7):676-682.

Kinsman, S.  1990.  Regeneration by fragmentation in tropical montane foest shrubs.  American Journal of Botany 77:1626-1633.

Koptur, S.  1982.  Biotic interactions of Costa Rican Inga (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae): pollination ecology and antiherbivore defense.  Dissertation.
  University of California, Berkeley, California, USA

---.  1983.  Flowering phenology and floral biology of Inga (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae).  Systematic Botany 8:354-368.

---.  1983.  Inga.  Pages 259-261 in D. Janzen, editor.  Costa Rican Natural History.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago,Illinois,USA.

---.  1984.  Outcrossing and pollinator limitation of fruit set: breeding systems of neotropical Inga trees (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae).  Evolution 38:

---.  1984.  Experimental evidence for defense of Inga (Mimosoideae) saplings by ants.  Ecology 65:1787-1793.

---.  1985.  Alternative defenses against herbivores in Inga (Fabaceae: Mimosiodeae) over an elevational gradient.  Ecology 66:1639-1650.

---.  1989.  Is extrafloral nectar an inducible defense?  Pages 323-339 in J. H. Bock and Y. B. Linhart, editors.  The evolutionary ecology of plants.
  Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

---.  1989.  Mimicry of flowers by parasitoid pupae.  Biotropica 21:93-95.

---.  1991.  Extrafloral nectaries of herbs and trees: modelling the interaction with ants and parasitoids.  Pages 212-259 in C. R. Huxley and D. F. Cutler,
  editors.  Ant-Plant Interactions.  Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

---.  1992.  Extrafloral nectary-mediated interactions between insects and plants.  Pages 81-129 in E. Bernays, editor.  Insect-Plant Interactions Vol. 4.
  CRC Press, Boca Raton.

---.  1994.  Floral and extrafloral nectars of Costa Rican Inga trees: a comparison of their constituents and composition.  Biotropica 26:276-284.

Koptur, S., W. A. Haber, G. W. Frankie, and H. G. Baker.  1988.  Phenological studies of shrub and treelet species in tropical cloud forests of Costa Rica.
  Journal of Tropical Ecology 4:323-346.

Koptur, S., and M. A. Lee.  1993.  Plantlet formation in tropical montane ferns: a preliminary investigation.  American Fern Journal 83:60-66.

Langtimm, C. A.  1992.  Specializations for vertical habitats among a cloud forst community of mice.  Dissertation.  University of Florida, Gainesville FL

Laval, R. K.  1977.  Notes on some Costa Rican bats.  Brenesia 10/11:77-83.

Law, B., and D. B. McDonald.  1991.  The Birds of Monteverde. 7th edition. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica.

Law, R., and S. Koptur.  1986.  On the evolution of non-specific mutualism. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 27:251-267.

Lawton, M. F.  1983.  Cyanocorax morio.  Pages 573-574 in, .  Costa Rican Natural History.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Lawton, M. F., and C. F. Guindon.  1981.  Flock composition, breeding success and learning among brown jays (Cyanocorax [Psilorhinus] morio).  Condor 83:27-

Lawton, M. F., and R. O. Lawton.  1980.  Nest-site selection in the Brown Jay. The Auk 97:631-633.

---.  1985.  The breeding biology of the Brown Jay in Monteverde, Costa Rica. Condor 87:192-204.

---.  1986.  Heterochrony, deferred breeding, and avian sociality.  Current Ornithology 3:187-221.

Lawton, R.  1983.  Didymopanax pitteri.  Pages 233-234 in D. Janzen, editor. Costa Rican Natural History.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago,IL, USA.

Lawton, R. O.  1980.  Wind and the ontogeny of elfin stature in a Costa Rican lower montane rain forest.  Dissertation.  University of Chicago, Chicago

---.  1982.  Wind stress and elfin stature in a montane rain forest tree: an adaptive explanation.  American Journal of Botany 69:1224-1240.

---.  1984.  Ecological constraints on wood density in a tropical montane rain forest.  American Journal of Botany 71:261-267.

---.  1986.  The evolution of strangling by Ficus crassiuscula.  Brenesia 25/26:273-278.

---.  1989.  More on strangling by Ficus crassiuscula Warb. ex Standle: a reply to Ramirez.  Brenesia 32:119-120.

---.  1990.  Canopy gaps and light penetration into a wind-exposed tropical lower montane rain forest.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20:659-667.

Lawton, R. O., L. D. Alexander, W. N. Setzer, and K. G. Byler.  1993.  Floral essential oil of Guettarda poasana inhibits yeast growth.  Biotropica 25(4):

Lawton, R. O., and J. Campbell.  1984.  Climate and vegetation of a neotropical montane forest (abstract).  Pages 59 in, .  Bulletin of the Ecological
  Society of America., .

Lawton, R. O., and V. Dryer.  1980.  The vegetation of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve.  Brenesia 18:101-116.

Lawton, R. O., and F. E. Putz.  1988.  Natural disturbance and gap-phase regeneration in a wind-exposed tropical cloud forest.  Ecology 69(3):764-777.

Lesica, P., and R. Antibus.  1990.  The occurrence of mycorrhizae in vascular epiphytes of two Costa Rican rain forests.  Biotropica 22(3):250-258.

Lesica, P., and R. K. Antibus.  1991.  Canopy soils and epiphyte richness. National Geographic  7(2):156-165.

Lichtwardt, R. W.  1994.  Trichomycete gut fungi living in the guts of Costa Rican phytoelm larvae and other lentic dipterans.  Revista de Biologia
  Tropical 42:31-48.

Linhart, Y. B.  1991.  Disease, parasitism and herbivory:  multidimensional challenges in plant evolution.  TREE 6(12):392-396.

Linhart, Y. B., W. H. Busby, J. H. Beach, and P. Feinsinger.  1987.  Forager behavior, pollen dipersal, and inbreeding in two species of hummungbird
  pollinated plants.  Evolution 41(3):679-682.

Linhart, Y. B., P. Feinsinger, J. H. Beach, W. H. Busby, K. G. Murray, W. Z. Pounds, C. A. Guidon, and M. Kooiman.  1987.  Disturbance and predictability
  of flowering patterns in bird-pollinated cloud forest plants.  Ecology 68(6):1696-1710.

Little, R. J.  1983.  A review of floral food deception mimicries with comments on floral mutualism.  Pages 294-309 in C. E. Jones and R. J. Little,
  editors.  Handbook of experimental pollination.  Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, New York, USA.

Longino, J. T., and N. M. Nadkarni.  1990.  A comparison of ground and canopy leaf litter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a Neotropical montane forest.
  Psyche 97:81-93.

Lumer, C.  1980.  Rodent pollination of Blakea (Melastomataceae) in a Costa Rican cloud forest.  Brittonia 32(4):512-517.

---.  1983.  Blakea (San Miguel).  Pages 194-195 in D. H. Janzen, editor. Costa Rican Natural History.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Lumer, C., and R. D. Shoer.  1986.  Pollination of Blakea austin-smithii and B. penduliflora (Melastomataceae) by small rodents in Costa Rica.
  Biotropica 18(4):363-364.

Luther, H. E.  1995.  An annotated checklist of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica. Selbyana 16:230-234.

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