Bibliography


These links will take you to the individual Bibliographic Citations of each chapter.

Animals 
Plants 
Physical Environment
Plant-Animal Interactions 
Ecosystem Ecology 
Human Ecology 
Mammals
 
Conservation Biology
Birds
 
Agricultural Ecology
Reptiles and Amphibians
 
Conservation Institutions
Insects and Spiders
 

Return to Monteverde Home Page
Return to Canopy Citation Database

Full Bibliographic Citations from Monteverde: Ecology and Conservation of a Tropical Cloud Forest

Agren, J., and D. W. Schemske.  1991.  Pollination by deceit in a Neotropical monoecious herb, Begonia involucrata.  Biotropica 23:235-241.

---.  1993.  Outcrossing rate and inbreeding depression in two annual monoecious herbs, Begonia hirsuta and B. semiovata.  Evolution 47:125-135.

---.  1995.  Sex allocation in the monoecious herb Begonia semiovata. Evolution 49:121-130.

Alcock, J.  1988.  The mating system of three territorial butterflies in Costa Rica.  Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 26:89-97.

---.  1989.  The mating system of Brechmorhoga pertinax (Hagen):  The evolution of brief patrolling bouts in a "territorial" Dragonfly (Odonata: Libellulidae).
  Journal of Insect Behavior 2(1):49-62.

Alcock, J., and A. Forsyth.  1988.  Post-copulatory aggression toward their mates by males of the rove beetle Leistotrophus versicolor (Coleoptera:
  Staphylinidae).  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 22:303-308.

Andrade, J. L.  1996.  Habitat, CO2 uptake and growth for the CAM epiphytic cactus Epiphyllum phyllanthus in a Panamanian tropical forest.  Journal of
  Tropical Ecology 12:291-306.

Baker, H. G.  1976.  "Mistake" pollination as a reproductive system with special reference to the Caricaceae.  Pages 161-169 in J. Burley and B. T. Styles,
  editors.  Tropical trees: variation, breeding and conservation.  Academic Press, New York, New York, USA.

Barnard, C. J., and J. Fitzsimmons.  1988.  Kin recognition and mate choice in mice: the effects of kinship, familiarity and social interference on intersexual
  interaction.  Animal Behavior 36:1078-1090.

Bawa, K. S.  1980.  Mimicry of male by female flowers and intrasexual competition for pollinators in Jacaratia dolichaula (D. Smith) Woodson
  (Caricaceae).  Evolution 34:467-474.

Bigelow, S., and P. Kukle.  1991.  The Ferns of Monteverde. 1st edition. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica.

Bohlman, S., T. J. Matelson, and N. M. Nadkarni.  In press.  Moisture and temperature patterns of dead organic matter in the canopy and soils on the
  forest floor of a montane cloud forest.  Biotropica.

Boo, E.  1990.  Ecotourism: the potentials and pitfalls.  edition. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

Bronstein, J. L.  1986.  Coevolution and constraints in a neotropical fig- pollinator wasp mutalism.  Dissertation.  University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
  Michigan,USA

---.  1987.  Maintenance of species-specificity in a Neotropical fig-pollinator wasp mutalism.  Oikos 48:39-46.

---.  1988.  Mutualism, antagonism, and the fig-pollinator interaction.  Ecology 69:1298-1302.

---.  1988.  Predators of fig wasps.  Biotropica 20:215-219.

---.  1988.  Limits to fruit production in a monecious fig: consequences of an obligate mutualism.  Ecology 69:207-214.

---.  1991.  The nonpollinating wasp fauna of Ficus pertusa: exploitation of a mutualism?  Oikos 61(2):175-186.

---.  1992.  Seed predators as mutualists: ecology and evolution of the fir/pollinator interaction.  Pages 2-44 in E. Bernays, editor.  Insect-Plant
  Interactions.  CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Bronstein, J. L., and K. Hoffman.  1987.  Spatial and temporal variation in frugivory at a Neotropical fig, Ficus pertusa.  Oikos 49:261-268.

Bruijnzeel, L. A., and J. Proctor.  1993.  Hydrology and Biogeochemistry of Tropical Montane "Cloud Forests":  What Do We Really Know?  Tropical Montane
  Cloud Forests Symposium and Workshop :.

Bruijnzeel, L. A., M. J. Waterloo, J. Proctor, A. T. Kuiters, and B. Kotterink.1993.  Hydrological observations in montane rain forests on Gunung Silam,
  Sabah, Malaysia, with special reference to the 'Massenerhebung' effect. Journal of Ecology 81:145-167.

Busby, W. H.  1987.  Flowering phenology and density-dependent pollination success in Cephaelis elata (Rubiaceae).  Dissertation.  University of
  Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

Buskirk, R. E.  1975.  Aggressive display and orb defence in a colonial spider, Metabus gravidus.  Animal Behavior 23(2):560-567.

---.  1975.  Coloniality, activity patterns and feeding in a tropical orb-weaving spider.  Ecology 56(6):1314-1328.

---.  1986.  Orb-weaving spiders in aggregations modify individual web structure.  The Journal of Arachnology 14:259-265.

Buskirk, R. E., and K. J. Sherman.  1985.  The influence of larval ecology on oviposition and mating strategies in dragonflies.  The Florida Entomologist
  68(1):39-51.

Buskirk, R., and W. H. Buskirk.  1976.  Changes in arthropod abundance in a highland Costa Rican forest.  American Midland Naturalist 95:288-298.

Buskirk, W. H.  1973.  Four new migrants for Costa Rica.  Condor 75:363-364.

---.  1976.  Social systems in a tropical forest avifauna.  American Naturalist 110:293-310.

---.  1978.  Frugivory by Swallow-tailed Kites in Costa Rica.  The Auk 95:767-768.

---.  1981.  Ochraceous Wren fails to respond to mobbing calls in an interspecific flock.   Wilson Bulletin 93:278-279.

Cardosa Da Silva, J. M., C. Uhl, and K. G. Murray.  1996.  Plant succession, landscape management and the ecology of frugivorous birds in abandoned
  Amazonian pastures.  Conservation Biology 10:491-503.

Chamberlain Gallegos, F.  1993.  The Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve Chapter. Pages  in,.  Leadership for Environment and Development Program.
  Tropical Science Center, Costa Rica.

Colwell, R. K.  1992.  Making sense of ecological complexity:  a personal and conceptual retrospective.  Biotropica 24:226-232.

Cruden, R. W., S. Kinsman, R. E. Stockhouse Jr., and Y. B. Linhart.  1976. Pollination, fecundity, and the distribution of moth-flowered plants.
  Biotropica 8:204-210.

Crump, M. L.  1984.  Ontogenetic changes in vulnerability to predation in tadpoles of Hyla pseudopuma. Herpetologica 40:265-271.

---.  1986.  Homing and site fidelity in a Neotropical frog, Atelopus varius  (Bufonidae).  Copeia 1986:438-444.

---.  1988.  Aggression in harlequin frogs: male-male competion and a possible conflict of interest between the sexes.  Animal Behavior 36:1064-1077.

---.  1989.  Temporal variation in the dispersion of a tropical anuran.  Copeia 1:209-211.

---.  1989.  Effect of habitat drying on developmental time and size at metamorphosis in Hyla pseudopuma.  Copeia 3:794-797.

---.  1989.  Life history consequences of feeding versus non-feeding in a facultatively non-feeding toad larvae.  Oecologia 78:486-489.

---.  1990.  Possible enhancement of growth in tadpoles through cannibalism. Copeia 2:560-564.

---.  1991.  Choice of oviposition site and egg load assessment by a treefrog. Herpetologica 47:308-315.

Crump, M. L., F. R. Hensley, and K. L. Clark.  1992.  Apparent decline of the Golden Toad: underground or extinct?  Copeia 2:413-420.

Crump, M. L., and J. A. Pounds.  1985.  Lethal parasitism of an aposematic anuran (Atelopus varius) by Notochaeta bufonivora (Diptera:Sarcophagidae).
  Journal of Parasitology 71:588-591.

Crump, M. L., and D. S. Townsend.  1990.  Random mating by size in a Neotropical treefrog, Hyla pseudopuma.  Herpetologica 46:383-386.

Cutler, D. E., R. R. Bennett, R. D. Stevenson, and R. H. White.  1995.  Feeding behavior in the nocturnal moth Manduca sexta is mediated mainly by blue
  receptors, but where are they located in the retina?  The Journal of Experimental Biology 198:1909-1917.

Daniels, G. S., and F. G. Stiles.  1979.  The heliconia taxa of Costa Rica: keys and descriptions.  Brenesia 15 supplement:1-150.

Daniels, J. D., and R. O. Lawton.  1991.  Habitat and host preferences of Ficus crassiuscula, a Neotropical strangling fig of the lower-montane rain forest.
  Journal of Ecology, UK 79:129-141.

---.  1993.  A natural history of strangling by Ficus crassiuscula in Costa Rican lower montane rain forest.  Selbyana 14:25-29.

Diller O'Dell, G. W.  unpublished.  Strategy and survival: a tropical liana Mucuna urens in secondary growths in Monteverde, Puntarenas, Costa Rica.:.

Dinerstein, E.  1983.  Reproductive ecology of fruit bats and seasonality of fruit production in a Costa Rican cloud forest.  Dissertation.  University of
  Washington, Seattle,WA, USA

---.  1986.  Reproductive ecology of fruit bats and the seasonality of fruit production in a Costa Rican cloud forest.  Biotropica 18:307-318.

Fauth, J. E., B. I. Crother, and J. B. Slowinski.  1989.  Elevational patterns of species richness, eveneness, and abundance of the Costa Rican leaf-litter
  herpetofauna.  Biotropica 21:178-185.

Feinsinger, P.  1977.  Notes on the hummingbirds of Monteverde, Cordillera de Tilaran, Costa Rica.   Wilson Bulletin 89:159-165.

---.  1977.  Approaches to nectarivore-plant interactions in the New World. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 60:285-319.

---.  1978.  Ecological interactions between plants and hummingbirds in a successional tropical community.  Ecological Monographs 48:269-287.

---.  1983.  Coevolution and pollination.  Pages 282-310 in D. J. Futuyma and M. Slatkin, editors.  Coevolution.  Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

---.  1987.  Effects of plant species on each others pollination: is community structure influenced?  TREE 2:123-126.

---.  1988.  The long and short of hummingbird bills.  International Wildlife 18(4):14-17.

Feinsinger, P., J. H. Beach, Y. B. Linhart, W. H. Busby, and K. G. Murray. 1987.  Disturbance, pollinator predictability, and pollination success among
  Costa Rican cloud forest plants.  Ecology 68:1294-1305.

Feinsinger, P., and W. H. Busby.  1987.  Pollen carryover: experimental comparisons between morphs of Palicourea lasiorrachis (Rubiaceae), a
  distylous, bird-pollinated tropical treelet.  Oecologia 73:231-235.

Feinsinger, P., W. H. Busby, K. G. Murray, J. H. Beach, W. Z. Pounds, and Y. B. Linhart.  1988.  Mixed support for spatial heterongeneity in species
  interactions: hummingbirds in a tropical disturbance mosaic.  American Naturalist 131(1):33-57.

Feinsinger, P., W. H. Busby, and H. M. Tiebout.  1988.  Effects of indiscriminate foraging by tropical hummingbirds on pollination and plant
  reproductive success: experiments with two tropical treelets (Rubiaceae). Oecologia 76:471-474.

Feinsinger, P., and S. B. Chaplin.  1975.  On the relationship between wing disc loading and foraging strategy in hummingbirds.  American Naturalist 109:217-
  224.

Feinsinger, P., and R. K. Colwell.  1978.  Community organization among neotropical nectar-feeding birds.  American Zoologist 18:779-795.

Feinsinger, P., R. K. Colwell, J. Terbourgh, and S. B. Chaplin.  1979. Elevation and the morphology, flight energetics, and foraging ecology of
  tropical hummingbirds.  American Naturalist 113:481-497.

Feinsinger, P., K. G. Murray, S. Kinsman, and W. H. Busby.  1986.  Floral neighborhood and pollination success in four humming bird-pollinated cloud
  forest plant species.  Ecology 67:449-464.

Feinsinger, P., L. A. Swarm, and J. A. Wolfe.  1985.  Nectar-feeding birds on Trinidad and Tobago:  comparison of diverse and depauperate guilds.
  Ecological Monographs 55(1):1-28.

Feinsinger, P., and H. M. Tiebout.  1987.  Impacto de la competencia inter-especifica en la estructura de las comunidades: colibries y las plantas que
  ellos polinizan.  Memorias III Congreso Ornitologia Neotropical :23-27.

---.  1991.  Competition among plants sharing hummingbird pollinators: laboratory experiments on a mechanism.  Ecology 72:1946-1952.

Feinsinger, P., H. M. Tiebout, and B. E. Young.  1991.  Do tropical bird-pollinated plants exhibit density-dependent interactions? Field experiments.
  Ecology 72:1953-1963.

Feinsinger, P., H. M. Tiebout III, B. E. Young, and K. G. Murray. 1992. New perspectives on neotropical plant-hummingbird interactions. Acta XX congressus
  Internationalis Ornithologici :1605-1611.

Feinsinger, P.  1976.  Organizaton of a tropical guild of nectarivorous birds. Ecological Monographs 46:257-291.

Fenster, C. B.  1991.  Selection on floral morphology by hummingbirds. Biotropica 23:98-101.

Findley, J. S., and D. E. Wilson.  1983.  Are bats rare in tropical Africa? Biotropica 15:299-303.

Fogden, M., and P. Fogden.  1984.  All that glitters may be toad.  Natural History 84/5:47-50.

Fogden, M. P. L.  1994.  An annotated checklist of the birds of Monteverde and  Penas Blancas.  edition. Imprenta, LIL, S.A., San Jose, Costa Rica.

Forsyth, A., and J. Alcock.  1990.  Female mimicry and resource defense polygyny by males of a tropical rove beetle, Leistotrophus versicolor (Coleoptera:
  Staphylinidae).  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 26:325-330.

---.  1990.  Prey luring as alternative foraging tactics of the fly catching rove beetle Leistotrophus versicolor (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).  Journal
  of Insect Behavior 3:703-718.

Gardner, A. L.  1970.  The distributional status of some Costa Rican bats. Journal of Mammalogy 51:712-729.

Geisbert, E. F.  1989.  A new species of Strangalia Audinet-Serville (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Monteverde, Costa Rica.  Pan-Pacific
  Entomologist 65(4):463-467.

Gibbs, J. P., M. L. J. Hunter, and S. M. Melvin.  1993.  Snag availability and communities of cavity nesting birds in tropical versus temperate forests.
  Biotropica 25:236-241.

Gibson, J. P., and P. K. Diggle.  1997.  Structural analysis of female and hermaphroditic flowers of a gynodioecious tree, Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae).
  American Journal of Botany 84:298-307.

Gibson, J. P., and N. T. Wheelwright.  1995.  Influence of avian seed dispersal on genetic structure in a population of a tropical tree, Ocotea tenera
  (Lauraceae).  Oecologia 103:49-54.

---.  1996.  Mating system dynamics of Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae), a gynodioecious tropical tree.  American Journal of Botany 83:890-894.

Giesbert, E. F.  1989.  A new species of Strangalia Audinet-Serville (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Monteverde, Costa Rica.  Pan-Pacific
  Entomologist 65(4):463-467.

Giesbert, E. F., and F. T. Hovore.  1989.  Stenochariergus, a new genus with two new species (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae) from Central America.  Pan-Pacific
  Entomologist 65:348-351.

Gottsberger, G.  1989.  Comments on flower evolution and beetle pollination in the genera Annona and Rollinia (Annonaceae).  Plant Systematic Evolution
  167:189-194.

Gottsberger, G., and I. Silberbauer-Gottsberger.  1991.  Olfactory and visual attraction of Erioscelis emarginata (Cyclocephalini, Dynastinae) to the
  inflorescences of Philodendron selloum (Araceae).  Biotropica 23:23-28.

Green, G. C.  1989.  Conservation projects in Latin America:  an analysis to determine the ingredients for success.  Dissertation.  Oxford University

Guindon, W.  1993.  Tales and Trails.  Tapir Tracks 8(1):8-9.

Guyer, C.  1990.  The Herpetofauna of La Selva, Costa Rica.  Pages 371-385 in A. Gentry, editor.  Four neotropical rainforests.  Yale University Press, .

Haber, W. A.  1978.  Evolutionary Ecology of tropical mimetic butterflies (Lepidoptera:  Ithomiinae).  Dissertation.  University of Minnesota

---.  1983.  Solanum ochraceo-ferrugineum.  Pages 324-328 in D. Janzen, editor.  Costa Rican Natural History.  The University of Chicago Press,
  Chicago,Illinois, USA.

---.  1983.  Sphingid checklist.  Pages 645-650 in D. Janzen, editor.  Costa Rican Natural History.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago,Illinois,USA.

Haber, W. A., W. Zuchowski, and E. Bello.  1996.  An introduction to cloud forest trees: Monteverde, Costa Rica.  edition. La Nacion, San Jose, Costa
  Rica.

Hartshorn, G. S.  1983.  Plants.  Pages 125-144 in D. H. Janzen, editor. Costa Rican Natural History.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Hayes, M., and R. K. Laval.  1989.  The mammals of Monteverde (Mamiferos de Monteverde). 2nd edition. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica.

Hayes, M. P.  1983.  Predation on the adults and prehatching stages of glass frogs (Centrolenidae).  Biotropica 15:74-76.

Holdridge, L. R.  1967.  Life zone ecology.  edition. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica.

Holdrige, L. A.  1966.  The life zone system.  Adansonia 6:199-203.

Holl, K. D., G. C. Daily, and P. R. Ehrlich.  1993.  The fertility plateau in Costa Rica:  a review of causes and remedies.  Environmental Conservation 20:
  317-323.

---.  1995.  Knowledge and perceptions in Costa Rica regarding environment, population, and biodiversity issues.  Conservation Biology 9:1548-1558.

Hovore, F. T.  1987.  A new genus and species of Cerambycidae from Costa Rica (Coleoptera).  Pan-Pacific Entomologist 63:151-154.

---.  1989.  Records and Descriptions of Costa Rican Cerambycidae, Part 1:  the Turrialba Valley.  Insecta Mundi 3(4):249-260.

---.  1992.  A new genus and species of flightless longhorned beetle from Central America (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).  Insecta Mundi 6:37-41.

Hovore, F. T., and E. F. Giesbert.  1990.  The genus Pronuba Thomson in Central America (Coleptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Heteropsini).  Revista
  Bras. Ent. 34:789-794.

Ingram, S. W.  1989.  The abundance, vegetative composition and distribution of epiphytes in a Costa Rican lower montane rain forest.  Thesis.  University of
  California, Santa Barbara, CA

Ingram, S. W., and N. M. Nadkarni.  1993.  Composition and distribution of epiphytic organic matter in a neotropical cloud forest, Costa Rica.
  Biotropica 25:370-383.

Jacobson, S. K.  1983.  Short season of the Golden Toad.  International Wildlife 13:25-27.

---.  1985.  Reproductive behavior and male mating success in two species of glass frogs (Centrolenidae).  Herpetologica 41:396-404.

---.  1991.  Evaluation model for developing, implementing, and assessing conservation education programs:  examples from Belize and Costa Rica.
  Environmental Management 15(2):143-150.

Jacobson, S. K., and J. J. Vandenberg.  1991.  Reproductive ecology of the endangered Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes).  Journal of Herpetology 25:321-327.

Janos, D. P.  1993.  Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrihaizae of epiphytes. Mycorrhiza 4:1-4.

Janzen, D. H.  1976.  The depression of reptile biomass by large herbivores. American Naturalist 110:371-400.

---.  1983.  Insects. Introduction.  Pages 619-645 in D. H. Janzen, editor. Costa Rican natural history.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Kasomenakis, S.  1990.  A trip to Monteverde Biological Preserve, Costa Rica. American Orchid Society Bulletin 59(7):676-682.

Kinsman, S.  1990.  Regeneration by fragmentation in tropical montane foest shrubs.  American Journal of Botany 77:1626-1633.

Koptur, S.  1982.  Biotic interactions of Costa Rican Inga (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae): pollination ecology and antiherbivore defense.  Dissertation.
  University of California, Berkeley, California, USA

---.  1983.  Flowering phenology and floral biology of Inga (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae).  Systematic Botany 8:354-368.

---.  1983.  Inga.  Pages 259-261 in D. Janzen, editor.  Costa Rican Natural History.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago,Illinois,USA.

---.  1984.  Outcrossing and pollinator limitation of fruit set: breeding systems of neotropical Inga trees (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae).  Evolution 38:
  1130-1143.

---.  1984.  Experimental evidence for defense of Inga (Mimosoideae) saplings by ants.  Ecology 65:1787-1793.

---.  1985.  Alternative defenses against herbivores in Inga (Fabaceae: Mimosiodeae) over an elevational gradient.  Ecology 66:1639-1650.

---.  1989.  Is extrafloral nectar an inducible defense?  Pages 323-339 in J. H. Bock and Y. B. Linhart, editors.  The evolutionary ecology of plants.
  Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

---.  1989.  Mimicry of flowers by parasitoid pupae.  Biotropica 21:93-95.

---.  1991.  Extrafloral nectaries of herbs and trees: modelling the interaction with ants and parasitoids.  Pages 212-259 in C. R. Huxley and D. F. Cutler,
  editors.  Ant-Plant Interactions.  Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

---.  1992.  Extrafloral nectary-mediated interactions between insects and plants.  Pages 81-129 in E. Bernays, editor.  Insect-Plant Interactions Vol. 4.
  CRC Press, Boca Raton.

---.  1994.  Floral and extrafloral nectars of Costa Rican Inga trees: a comparison of their constituents and composition.  Biotropica 26:276-284.

Koptur, S., W. A. Haber, G. W. Frankie, and H. G. Baker.  1988.  Phenological studies of shrub and treelet species in tropical cloud forests of Costa Rica.
  Journal of Tropical Ecology 4:323-346.

Koptur, S., and M. A. Lee.  1993.  Plantlet formation in tropical montane ferns: a preliminary investigation.  American Fern Journal 83:60-66.

Langtimm, C. A.  1992.  Specializations for vertical habitats among a cloud forst community of mice.  Dissertation.  University of Florida, Gainesville FL

Laval, R. K.  1977.  Notes on some Costa Rican bats.  Brenesia 10/11:77-83.

Law, B., and D. B. McDonald.  1991.  The Birds of Monteverde. 7th edition. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica.

Law, R., and S. Koptur.  1986.  On the evolution of non-specific mutualism. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 27:251-267.

Lawton, M. F.  1983.  Cyanocorax morio.  Pages 573-574 in, .  Costa Rican Natural History.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Lawton, M. F., and C. F. Guindon.  1981.  Flock composition, breeding success and learning among brown jays (Cyanocorax [Psilorhinus] morio).  Condor 83:27-
  33.

Lawton, M. F., and R. O. Lawton.  1980.  Nest-site selection in the Brown Jay. The Auk 97:631-633.

---.  1985.  The breeding biology of the Brown Jay in Monteverde, Costa Rica. Condor 87:192-204.

---.  1986.  Heterochrony, deferred breeding, and avian sociality.  Current Ornithology 3:187-221.

Lawton, R.  1983.  Didymopanax pitteri.  Pages 233-234 in D. Janzen, editor. Costa Rican Natural History.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago,IL, USA.

Lawton, R. O.  1980.  Wind and the ontogeny of elfin stature in a Costa Rican lower montane rain forest.  Dissertation.  University of Chicago, Chicago

---.  1982.  Wind stress and elfin stature in a montane rain forest tree: an adaptive explanation.  American Journal of Botany 69:1224-1240.

---.  1984.  Ecological constraints on wood density in a tropical montane rain forest.  American Journal of Botany 71:261-267.

---.  1986.  The evolution of strangling by Ficus crassiuscula.  Brenesia 25/26:273-278.

---.  1989.  More on strangling by Ficus crassiuscula Warb. ex Standle: a reply to Ramirez.  Brenesia 32:119-120.

---.  1990.  Canopy gaps and light penetration into a wind-exposed tropical lower montane rain forest.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20:659-667.

Lawton, R. O., L. D. Alexander, W. N. Setzer, and K. G. Byler.  1993.  Floral essential oil of Guettarda poasana inhibits yeast growth.  Biotropica 25(4):
  483-486.

Lawton, R. O., and J. Campbell.  1984.  Climate and vegetation of a neotropical montane forest (abstract).  Pages 59 in, .  Bulletin of the Ecological
  Society of America., .

Lawton, R. O., and V. Dryer.  1980.  The vegetation of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve.  Brenesia 18:101-116.

Lawton, R. O., and F. E. Putz.  1988.  Natural disturbance and gap-phase regeneration in a wind-exposed tropical cloud forest.  Ecology 69(3):764-777.

Lesica, P., and R. Antibus.  1990.  The occurrence of mycorrhizae in vascular epiphytes of two Costa Rican rain forests.  Biotropica 22(3):250-258.

Lesica, P., and R. K. Antibus.  1991.  Canopy soils and epiphyte richness. National Geographic  7(2):156-165.

Lichtwardt, R. W.  1994.  Trichomycete gut fungi living in the guts of Costa Rican phytoelm larvae and other lentic dipterans.  Revista de Biologia
  Tropical 42:31-48.

Linhart, Y. B.  1991.  Disease, parasitism and herbivory:  multidimensional challenges in plant evolution.  TREE 6(12):392-396.

Linhart, Y. B., W. H. Busby, J. H. Beach, and P. Feinsinger.  1987.  Forager behavior, pollen dipersal, and inbreeding in two species of hummungbird
  pollinated plants.  Evolution 41(3):679-682.

Linhart, Y. B., P. Feinsinger, J. H. Beach, W. H. Busby, K. G. Murray, W. Z. Pounds, C. A. Guidon, and M. Kooiman.  1987.  Disturbance and predictability
  of flowering patterns in bird-pollinated cloud forest plants.  Ecology 68(6):1696-1710.

Little, R. J.  1983.  A review of floral food deception mimicries with comments on floral mutualism.  Pages 294-309 in C. E. Jones and R. J. Little,
  editors.  Handbook of experimental pollination.  Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, New York, USA.

Longino, J. T., and N. M. Nadkarni.  1990.  A comparison of ground and canopy leaf litter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a Neotropical montane forest.
  Psyche 97:81-93.

Lumer, C.  1980.  Rodent pollination of Blakea (Melastomataceae) in a Costa Rican cloud forest.  Brittonia 32(4):512-517.

---.  1983.  Blakea (San Miguel).  Pages 194-195 in D. H. Janzen, editor. Costa Rican Natural History.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Lumer, C., and R. D. Shoer.  1986.  Pollination of Blakea austin-smithii and B. penduliflora (Melastomataceae) by small rodents in Costa Rica.
  Biotropica 18(4):363-364.

Luther, H. E.  1995.  An annotated checklist of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica. Selbyana 16:230-234.

Lyon, B. E., and M. P. L. Fogden.  1989.  Breeding biology of the Sunbittern (Europyga helias) in Costa Rica.  The Auk 106:503-507.

Maffia, B., N. M. Nadkarni, and D. P. Janos.  1993.  Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae of epiphytic and terrestrial Piperaceae under field and greenhouse
  conditions.  Mycorrhiza 4:5-9.

Masters, A. R.  1990.  Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in artificial nectar protect adult Ithomiine butterflies from a spider predator.  Biotropica 22:298-304.

Matelson, T. J., N. M. Nadkarni, and J. T. Longino.  1993.  Longevity of fallen epiphytes in a Neotropical montane forest.  Ecology 74:265-269.

Mays, N.  1985.  Ants and foraging behavior of the Collared Forest-Falcon. Wilson Bulletin 97:231-232.

Mazer, S. J., and N. T. Wheelwright.  1993.  Fruit size and shape at different taxonomic levels in bird-dispersed plants.  Evolutionary Ecology 7: 556-575.

McDonald, D. B.  1987.  Male-male cooperation in a neotropical lekking bird. Dissertation.  University of Arizona

---.  1989.  Correlates of male mating success in a lekking bird with male-male cooperation.  Animal Behavior 37:1007-1022.

---.  1989.  Cooperation under sexual selection: age-graded changes in a lekking bird.  American Naturalist 134:709-730.

McDonald, D. B.  1992.  The old song and dance.  Tapir Tracks 7 (1):1-3,12.

McDonald, D. B.  1993.  Delayed plumage maturation and orderly queues for status: a manakin mannequin experiment.  Ethology 94:31-35.

---.  1993b.  Demographic consequences of sexual selection in the long-tailed manikan.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 4:297-309.

McDonald, D. B., and K. Winnett-Murray.  1989.  First reported nests of the Black-breasted Wood-Quail (Odontophorous leucolaemus).  Condor
  91:985-986.

McDonald, S. S., G. B. Williamson, and M. C. Wiemann.  1995.  Wood specific gravity and anatomy in Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae).  American
  Journal of Botany 82:855-861.

Meerow, A.  1980.  Tropical cloud forests.  Horticulture 58(1):40-49.

Merbel, V.  1982.  Host plant finding and oviposition behavior of Ithomia heraldica bates (Lepidoptera: Ithomiidae) at Monteverde.  Brenesia 19/20:369-
  372.

Miyamoto, M. M.  1982.  Vertical habitat use by Eleutherodactylus frogs (Leptodactylidae) at two Costa Rican localities.  Biotropica 14:141-144.

Munn, C. A.  1990.  Macaw biology and ecotourism, or when a bird in the bush is worth two in the hand.  Pages 47-72 in, .  New World Parrots in Crisis:
  Solution from Conservation Biology.  Smith Press, Washington, DC.

Murray, K. G.  1986.  Avian seed dispersal of neotropical gap-dependent plants. Dissertation.  University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

---.  1986.  Consequences of seed dispersal for gap-dependent plants: relationships betweeen seed shadow, germination requirements,and forest
  dynamic proceses.  Pages 187-198 in A. Estrada and T. H. Fleming, editors. Frugivores and seed dispersal.  Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrect.

---.  1987.  Selection for optimal fruit-crop size in bird dispersed plants. American Naturalist 129:18-31.

---.  1988.  Avian seed dispersal of three Neotropical gap-dependent plants. Ecological Monographs 58(4):271-298.

---.  in press.  Feeding preferences of frugivoruous birds: the influence of fruit coor, seed packaging, and sugar concentration.  Vegetatio :.

Murray, K. G., P. Feinsinger, W. H. Busby, Y. B. Linhart, J. H. Beach, and S. Kinsman.  1987.  Evaluation of character displacement among plants in two
  tropical pollination guilds.  Ecology 68(5):1283-1293.

Murray, K. G., S. Russell, C. M. Picone, K. Winnett-Murray, W. Sherwood, and M.C. Kuhlmann.  1994.  Fruit laxatives and seed passage rates in frugivores:
  consequences for plant reproductive success.  Ecology 75:989-994.

Nadkarni, M., and T. J. Matelson.  1992.  Biomass and nutrient dynamics of fine litter of terrestrially rooted material in a Neotropical montane forest, Costa
  Rica.  Biotropica 24(2a):113-120.

Nadkarni, N. M.  1981.  Canopy roots: convergent evolution in rainforest nutrient cycles.  Science, New York 214:1023-1024.

---.  1983.  The effects of epiphytes on nutrient cycles within temperate and tropical rainforest canopies.  Dissertation.  University of Wasington,
  Seattle, WA, USA

---.  1984.  Epiphyte biomass and nutrient capital of neotropical elfin forest. Biotropica 16(4):249-256.

---.  1984.  The biomass and nutrient capital of epiphytes in a neotropical cloud forest, Monteverde.  Biotropica 15:1-9.

---.  1985.  An ecological overview and checklist of vascular epiphytes in the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica.  Brenesia 24:55-62.

---.  1986.  The nutritional effects of epiphtyes on host trees with special reference to alteration of precipitation chemistry.  Selbyana 9:44-51.

---.  1986.  The effects of epiphytes on precipitation chemistry in a neotropical cloud forest.  Selbyana 9:47-52.

---.  1988.  Use of a portable platform for observation of animal behavior in tropical tree canopies.  Biotropica 20:350-351.

---.  1988.  Tropical rainforest ecology from a canopy perspective.  Pages 189- 206 in F. Almeda and C. M. Pringle, editors.  Tropical Rainforest: diversity
  and conservation.  Califorina Academy of Science, San Fransisco, CA, USA.

---.  1994.  Diversity of species and interactions in the upper tree canopy of forest ecosystems.  American Zoologist 34:70-78.

Nadkarni, N. M., and J. T. Longino.  1990.  Invertebrates in canopy and ground organic matter in a neotropical montane forest.  Biotropica 22(3):286-289.

Nadkarni, N. M., and T. J. Matelson.  1989.  Bird use of epiphyte resources in neotropical trees.  Condor 91:891-907.

---.  1991.  Fine litter dynamics within the tree canopy of a tropical cloud forest.  Ecology 72(6):2071-2082.

---.  1992.  Biomass and nutrient dynamics of epiphyte litterfall in a neotropical montane forest, Costa Rica.  Biotropica 24:24-30.

O'Donnell, S.  1995.  Necrophagy by Neotropical swarm-founding wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Epiponini).  Biotropica 27:133-136.

---.  1996.  RAPD markers suggest genotypic effects on forager specialization in a eusocial wasp.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 38:83-88.

---.  1996.  Dragonflies(Gynacantha nervosa Rambur) avoid wasps (Polybia aequatorialis Zavattari and Mischocyttarus sp.) as prey.  Journal of Insect
  Behavior 9:159-162.

---.  In press.  Evidence for genetic effects on task performance but not an age polyethism, in the swarm founding wasp Polybia aequatorialis.  Animal
  Behaviour.

O'Donnell, S., and R. L. Jeanne.  1990.  Notes on an army ant (Eciton burchelli) raid on a social wasp colony (Agelaia yepocapa) in Costa Rica.
  Journal of Tropical Ecology 6:507-509.

Otis, G. W., R. J. McGinley, L. Garling, and L. Malaret.  1982.  Biology and systematics of the bee genus Crawfordapis (Colletidae, Diphaglossinae).
  Psyche 89:279-296.

Peck, D. C.  1996.  The association of spittlebugs with grasslands; ecology of Prosapia (Homoptera: Cercopidae) in upland dairy pastures of Costa Rica.
  Thesis.  Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Peck, N.  1993.  The notorious Spittle Bug.  Tapir Tracks 8(1):1-2.

Podolsky, R.  1992.  Strange floral attractors: pollinator attraction and the evolution of plant sexual systems.  Science, New York 258:791-793.

Poldolsky, R.  1989.  The function of andromonoecy in Besleria triflora: a comparison of reproductive contributions by staminate and hermaphrodite
  flowers.  Dissertation.  The University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

Pounds, A. J.  1988.  Ecomorphology, locomotion, and microhabitat structure: patterns in a tropical mainland Anolis community.  Ecological Monographs 58:
  299-320.

Pounds, A. J., and M. L. Crump.  1987.  Harlequin frogs along a tropical montane stream: aggregation and the risk of predation by frog-eating flies.
  Biotropica 19:306-309.

Pounds, J. A., and M. L. Crump.  1994.  Amphibian declines and climate disturbance:  the case of the golden toad and the harlequin frog.
  Conservation Biology 8(1):72-85.

Powell, G. V. N.  1977.  Socioecology of mixed species flocks in a neotropical forest.  Dissertation.  University of California, Irvine, California, USA

---.  1979.  Structure and dynamics of interspecific flocks in a neotropical mid-elevation forest.  The Auk 96:375-390.

---.  1985.  Sociobiology and adaptive significance of interspecific foraging flocks in the Neotropics.  Pages 713-732 in P. Buckley, M. Foster, E.
  Morton, R. Ridgely, and F. Buckley, editors.  Neotropical Ornithology. Ornithological Monographs, .

Ramirez, W.  1988.  A reply to Lawton's paper on Ficus crassiuscula Warb. as a strangler.  Brenesia 29:115-116.

Rebertus, A. J.  1988.  Crown shyness in a tropical cloud forest.  Biotropica 20(4):338-339.

Reed, C. F., and H. Robinson.  1971.  Bryophytes of Monteverde, Costa Rica. Phytologia 21:6-21.

Reid, F. A., and C. A. Langtimm.  1993.  Distributional and natural history notes for selected mammals from Costa Rica.  The Southwestern Naturalist 38:
  299-302.

Renner, S. S., and J. P. Feil.  1993.  Pollinators of tropical dioecious angiosperms.  American Journal of Botany 80:1100-1107.

Riley, C. M.  1986.  Observations on the breeding biology of Emerald Toucanets in Costa Rica.   Wilson Bulletin 98:585-588.

---.  1986.  Sexual dimorphism and foraging behavior of Emerald Toucanets in Costa Rica.  Thesis.  University of Arkansas, Fayettville, Arkansas, USA

Riley, C. M., and K. G. Smith.  1986.  Flower eating by Emerald Toucanets in Costa Rica.  Condor 88:396-397.

---.  1992.  Sexual dimorphism and foraging behavior of Emarald Toucanets Aulacorhynchus prasinus in Costa Rica.  Ornis Scandinavica 23:459-466.

Sader, S. A., and A. T. Joyce.  1988.  Deforestation rates and trends in Costa Rica, 1940 to 1983.  Biotropica 20(1):11-19.

Santana, C. E., and B. G. Milligan.  1984.  Behavior of toucanets, bellbirds, and quetzals feeding on lauraceous fruits.  Biotropica 16:152-154.

Santana, M., W. G. Eberhard, G. Bessey, K. N. Prestwich, and R. D. Briceno. 1990.  Low predation rates in the field by the tropical spider Tengella
  radiata (Araneae: Tengellidae).  Biotropica 22:305-309.

Sargent, S.  1993.  Nesting biology of the Yellow-throated Euphonia: large clutch size in a Neotropical frugivore.   Wilson Bulletin 105:285-300.

---.  1994.  Seed dispersal of Mistletoes by birds in Monteverde, Costa Rica. Dissertation.  Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.

---.  1995.  Seed fate in a tropical mistletoe: the importance of host twig size.  Functional Ecology 9:197-204.

Savage, J. M.  1966.  An extraordinary new toad (Bufo) from Costa Rica.  Revista de Biologia Tropical 14:153-167.

Savage, J. M., and J. L. Vial.  1974.  The venomous coral snakes (genus Micrurus) of Costa Rica.  Revista de Biologia Tropical 21:295-349.

Schemenauer, R. S., and P. Cereceda.  1991.  Fog-water collection in arid coastal locations.  Ambio 20(7):303-308.

Schemske, D. W., and J. Agren.  1995.  Deceit pollination and selection on female flower size in Begonia involucrata: an experimental approach.
  Evolution 49:207-214.

Schemske, D. W., J. Agren, and J. Le Corff.  1996.  Deceit pollination in the monoecious, neotropical herb Begonia oaxacana (Begoniaceae).  Pages 292-318
  in D. G. Lloyd and S. C. H. Barrett, editors.  Floral biology: studies on floral evolution in animal-pollinated plants.  Chapman and Hall, .

Sillet, S. C., S. R. Gradstein, and D. III Griffin.  1995.  Bryophyte diversity of Ficus tree crowns from intact cloud forest and pasture in Costa Rica.
  The Bryologist 98:251-260.

Simons, P.  1988.  Costa Rica's forests are reborn.  New Scientist 120:43-46.

Snow, B. K.  1977.  Feeding behavior of two hummingbirds in a Costa Rican montane forest.   Wilson Bulletin 89:613-616.

---.  1977.  Territorial behavior and courtship of the male Three-wattled Bellbird.  The Auk 94:623-645.

Stadtmuller.  1987.  Cloud forests in the humid tropics. 1st edition. The United Nations University, Tokio, Japan.

Stiles, F. G.  1985.  On the role of birds in the dynamics of neotropical forests.  Pages 49-59 in A. W. Diamond and T. E. Lovejoy, editors.
  Conservation of tropical forest birds.  Proceedings of a workshop and symposium held at the XVIII world conference of the International Council for
  Bird Preservation, Kings College, Cambridge, England 7,8-10 August 1982. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge.

Stiles, F. G., and C. E. Freeman.  1993.  Patterns in floral nectar characteristics of some bird-visited plant species from Costa Rica.
  Biotropica 25:191-205.

Stiles, F. G., and H. A. Hespenheide.  1972.  Observations on two rare Costa Rican finches.  Condor 74:99-101.

Stiles, F. G., and S. M. Smith.  1980.  Notes on bird distribution in Costa Rica.  Brenesia 17:137-156.

Stratton, D. A.  1989.  Longevity of individual flowers in a Costa Rican cloud forest: ecological correlates and phylogenetic constraints.  Biotropica 21:308-318.

Stuckey, J.  unpub.  Organizations of Monteverde.  unpublished manuscript.

Thomas, C. D., P. M. Lackie, and M. J. and D. N. H. Brisco.  1986.  Interactions between hummingbirds and butterflies at a Hamelia patens bush.  Biotropica
  18:161-165.

Tiebout, H. M.  1989.  Test of a model of food passage rates in hummingbirds. The Auk 106:203-208.

---.  1990.  Energetics of tropical hummingbirds: effects of foraging mode, competition, and resource availability.  Dissertation.  University of Florida,
  Gainesville, Florida, USA

---.  1991.  Energetics of competition and guild structure of neotropical hummingbirds.  ACTA XX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici :1175-1179.

---.  1991.  Daytime energy management by tropical hummingbirds: responses to foraging constraint.  Ecology 72(3):839-851.

---.  1993.  Mechanisms of competition in tropical hummingbirds: metabolic costs for losers and winners.  Ecology 74(2):405-418.

Tiebout, H. M., and K. A. Nagy.  1991.  Validation of the double labeled water method (3HH180) for measuring water flux and CO2 production in the tropical
  hummingbird Amazilia saucerottei.  Physiological Zoology 64:362-374.

Tiebout, H. M., III.  1992.  Comparative energetics of divergent foraging modes: a doubly labelled water experiment on hummingbird competition.  Animal
  Behavior 44:895-906.

---.  1996.  Costs and benefits of interspecific dominance rank: are subordinates better at finding novel food locations?  Animal Behaviour 51:1375-1381.

Timm, R. M., and B. L. Clauson.  1990.  A roof over their feet.  Natural History 90(3):54-59.

Titus, J. H., M. N. Holbrook, and F. E. Putz.  1990.  Seed germination and seedling distribution of Ficus pertusa and F. tuerckheimii: are strangle
  figs autotoxic?  Biotropica 22(4):425-428.

Tobias, D., and R. Mendelsohn.  1991.  Valuing ecotourism in a tropical rain-forest reserve.  Ambio 20(2):91-93.

Tosi, J. A., Jr., V. WAtson, and J. Echeverria.  1992.  Potential impacts of climate change on the productive capacity of Costa Rican forests.  Tropical Science
  Center, San Jose, Costa Rica.

Tosi, J. 1992  A brief history of the Tropical Science Center's Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve 1972-1992. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica.

Trainer, J. M., and D. B. McDonald.  1993.  Vocal repertoire of the Long-tailed Manakin and its relation to male-male cooperation.  Condor 95:769-781.

---.  1995.  Singing performance, frequency matching and courtship success of long-tailed manakins (Chiroxiphia linearis).  Behavioral Ecology and
  Sociobiology 37:249-354.

Tramer, E. J.  1979.  First sight records of Lincoln's Sparrow for Costa Rica. Wilson Bulletin 91:469-470.

Tramer, E. J., and T. R. Kemp.  1979.  Diet correlated variations in social behavior of wintering Tennessee Warblers.  The Auk 96:186-187.

---.  1980.  Foraging ecology of migrant and resident warblers and vireos in the highlands of Costa Rica.  Pages 285-296 in A. Keast and E. Norton, editors.
  Migrant birds in the Neotropics.  Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

---.  1982.  Notes on migrants wintering at Monteverde, Costa Rica.   Wilson Bulletin 94:350-354.

Valburg, L. K.  1992.  Flocking and frugivory:  the effect of social groupings on resource use in the Common Bush Tanager.  Condor 94:358-363.

Vance, E. D., and N. M. Nadkarni.  1990.  Microbial biomass and activity in canopy organic matter and the forest floor of a tropical cloud forest.  Soil
  Biology and Biochemistry 22:677-684.

---.  1992.  Root biomass distribution in a moist tropical montane forest floor. Plant and Soil 142:31-39.

VanDevender, R. W.  1980.  Preliminary checklist of the herpetofauna of Monteverde, Puntarenes Province, Costa Rica and vicinity.  Brenesia 17:319-326.

Vargas, G.  1992.  An educational adventure.  Tapir Tracks 7(1):9.

Wheelwright, N. T.  1982.  Fruit characteristics and the foraging behavior of tropical fruit-eating birds.  Dissertation.  University of Washington, Seattle,Washington,
  USA

---.  1983.  Fruits and the ecology of Respendent Quetzals.  The Auk 100:286-301.

---.  1985.  Fruit size, gape width, and the diets of fruit-eating birds. Ecology 66:808-818.

---.  1985.  Competition for dipersers, and the timing of flowering and fruiting in a guild of tropical trees.  Oikos 44:465-477.

---.  1986.  A seven-year study of individal variation in fruit production in tropical bird-dispersed tree species in the family Lauraceae.  Pages 19-35 in A. Estrada
  and T. H. Fleming, editors.  Frugivores and seed dispersal. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht.

---.  1988.  Four constraints on coevolution between fruit-eating birds and fruiting plants: a tropical case history.  Pages 827-845 in, .  Proc. XIX
  Int. Ornith. Congr., Ottawa, Canada.

---.  1988.  Fruit-eating birds and fruiting plants in the tropics and temperate zone.  Trends in Ecology and Evolution 3:270-274.

---.  1991.  Frugivory and seed dispersal: 'la coevoluci¢n ha muerto - ­viva la coevoluci¢n!'.  Trends in Ecology and Evolution 6:312-313.

---.  1991.  How long do fruit-eating birds stay in the plants where they feed? Biotropica 23:29-40.

---.  1993.  Fruit size in a tropical tree species: variation, preference by birds, and heritability.  Vegetatio 107/108:163-174.

Wheelwright, N. T., and A. Bruneau.  1992.  Population sex ratios and spatial distribution of Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae) trees in a tropical forest.  Journal
  of Ecology, UK 80:425-432.

Wheelwright, N. T., W. A. Haber, K. G. Murray, and C. Guindon.  1984.  Tropical fruit-eating birds and their food plants: a survey of a Costa Rican lower
  montane forest.  Biotropica 16:173-192.

Wheelwright, N. T., and C. H. Janson.  1985.  Colors of fruit displays of bird-dispersed plants in two tropical forests.  American Naturalist 126:777-799.

Wheelwright, N., and G. H. Orians.  1982.  Seed dispersal by animals: contrasts with pollen dispersal, problems of terminology, and constraints on coevolution.
  American Naturalist 119:402-413.

White, R. H., R. D. Stevenson, R. R. Bennett, D. E. Cutler, and W. A. Haber. 1994.  Wavelength discrimination and the role of ultraviolet vision in the
  feeding behavior of Hawkmoths.  Biotropica 26:427-435.

White, R. H., R. D. Stevenson, R. R. Bennett, D. E. Cutler, and W. H. Haber. 1994.  Wavelength discrimination and the role of ultraviolet vision in the
  feeding behavior of Hawkmoths.  Biotropica 26:427-435.

White, R. H., R. D. Stevenson, and W. A. Haber.  1992.  Ultraviolet reflectance of flowers and feeding behavior of nocturnal hawkmoths.  American Zoologist
  32:12A.

Wiemann, M. C., and G. B. Williamson.  1989.  Wood specific gravity gradients in tropical dry and montane rain forest trees.  American Journal of Botany 76:
  924-928.

Williamson, G. B.  1984.  Gradients in wood specific gravity of trees.  Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 3 (1):51-55.

Willson, M. F., and J. Agren.  1989.  Differential floral rewards and pollination by deceit in unisexual flowers.  Oikos 55:23-29.

Wilson, E. O.  1991.  Rain forest canopy: the high frontier.  National Geographic  1991:78-107.

Winnett-Murray, K.  1985.  First reported nest of the White Eared Ground-Sparrow (Melozone levcotis).  Condor 87:554.

---.  1986.  Variation in the behavior and food supply of four neotropical wrens.  Dissertation.  University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

---.  1987.  Variation in the reproduction, behavior, and food supply of four Neotropical wrens.  Memorias III Congreso Ornitologia Neotropical :.

Winnett-Murray, K., K. G. Murray, and W. H. Busby.  1988.  Two nests of the Azure-hooded Jay with notes on nest attendance.   Wilson Bulletin 100:134-135.

Young, B. E.  1993.  Effects of the parasitic botfly Philornis carinatus on nestling House Wrens, Troglodytes aedon, in Costa Rica.  Oecologia 93:256-
  262.

---.  1994.  Geographical and seasonal patterns of clutch size variations in House Wrens.  The Auk 111(3):545-555.

---.  1994.  The effects of food, nest predation, and weather on the timing of breeding in tropical House Wrens.  Condor 96:341-353.

Young, B. E., M. C. Garvin, and D. B. McDonald.  1993.  Blood parasites in birds from Monteverde, Costa Rica.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 29:555-560.

Young, R. M.  1992.  A new Cyclocephala from a Costa Rican cloud forest (Scarabaediae: Dynatinea).  The Coleopterists Bulletin 46:52-55.

Zadroga, F.  1981.  The hydrological importance of a montane cloud forest area of Costa Rica.  Pages 59-73 in R. Lal and E. W. Russel, editors.  Tropical
  Agricultural Hydrology.  John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, Sussex, U.K.

---.  1981.  Interceptacion horizontal en los bosques de altura de Costa Rica y su importancia hidrologica.  Ciencias Ambientales 2:21-28.

Zuchowski, W.  1991.  Common flowering plants of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve. 3rd edition. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica.
 

 Return to Top of the Page
Return to Monteverde Home Page