Book Information
Monteverde: Ecology and Conservation of a Tropical Cloud Forest
N. Nadkarni and N. Wheelwright, editors.
Oxford University Press, New York, New York. Expected publication date: May, 1999.

  Gary S. Hartshorn
  Luis Diego Gómez

CHAPTER 1. Introduction
  Nalini M. Nadkarni and Nathaniel T. Wheelwright
    Historical Overview
    The Boundaries of Monteverde
Essay 1.1. Monteverde Beginnings
    Wilford "Wolf" Guindon
  Essay 1.2. Scope of Past Work in Monteverde
    Nalini M. Nadkarni

CHAPTER 2. The Physical Environment
  Kenneth L. Clark, Robert O. Lawton, and Paul R. Butler
    Climate and Weather of Monteverde
    Geology and Geologic History of Monteverde
    Modern Geography of the Codillera de Tilarán
    Paleoecology of the Cordillera de Tilarán
    Soils of Monteverde
    Hydrology of Monteverde
  Essay 2.1. Microclimate Variability at Monteverde
    Kenneth L. Clark and Nalini M. Nadkarni
  Essay 2.2. Epiphytic Histosols of Monteverde
    Kenneth L. Clark and Nalini M. Nadkarni

CHAPTER 3. Plants and Vegetation
  William A. Haber
    Distribution and Diversity
    Population Biology
Essay 3.1. Trees on Trees
    Francis E. Putz
  Essay 3.2. Why Strangler Figs Don't Strangle Strangler Figs
    Jonathan H. Titus
  Essay 3.3. Mucuna urens, a Tropical Liana
    Gary W. Diller O'Dell
Essay 3.7. Evolution in Cloud Forest Psychotria Section Notopleura via Growth Form Diversification
    Molly Nepokroeff and Kenneth J. Sytsma
  Essay 3.8. Bryophytes of Monteverde
    S. Robert Gradstein
  Essay 3.9. Plants Growing on Living Leaves
    María Morales
  Essay 3.10. Mistletoes and Where They Grow
    Sarah Sargent
  Essay 3.11. An Exceptional Mistletoe, Gaiadendron  punctatum
    Sarah Sargent
  Essay 3.12. Gut Fungi of Invertebrates
    Robert  W. Lichtwardt
  Essay 3.13. Breeding Systems of Monteverde Inga
    Suzanne Koptur
  Essay 3.14. Sex Ratios and the Distribution of Male and Female Trees
    Nathaniel T. Wheelwright
  Essay 3.15. Clonal reproduction through Plant Fragments in Poikilacanthus macranthus
    Stephen P. Bush
Appendix 3.1. Vascular Plants of Monteverde
    William A. Haber
  Appendix 3.2. Ferns of Monteverde
    Seth Bigelow and Peter Kukle
  Appendix 3.3. Description of Permanent Plots in Monteverde
    William A. Haber
  Appendix 3.4. Number of Species of Different Plant Growth Forms
    William A. Haber
  Appendix 3.5. Orchids of Monteverde
    John T. Atwood
  Appendix 3.6. Bromeliads of Monteverde
    Harry E. Luther

CHAPTER 4. Insects and Spiders
  Edited by Paul Hanson
Aquatic Insects
      Dragonflies and Damselflies of Costa Rican Cloud Forests
        Alonzo Ramírez
      Caddisflies of Costa Rican Cloud Forests
        Monika Springer
    Orthoptera: Katydids, Crikets, and Grasshoppers
      Paul Hanson
    Hemiptera: Heteroptera and Homoptera
    Biology and Diversity of Monteverde’s Spittlebugs and Froghoppers
        Daniel C. Peck
     Leafhoppers of Costa Rican Cloud Forests
        Carolina Godoy
      Sex and Social Life of Umbonia Treehoppers
        Karen Masters
      Psyllids of Costa Rican Cloud Forests
        David Hollis
      Small Males and Big Females in a Monteverde Scale Insect
        John Alcock
    Coleoptera: Beetles
      Rove Beetles (Staphylinidae) of the Monteverde Area
        James S. Ashe
      Dynastine Scarab Beetles of Monteverde
        Brett C. Ratcliffe
      Cleridae of Central American Cloud Forests
        Jacques Rifkind
      Long-horned Beetles (Cerambycidae and Disteniidae) of the Monteverde Area
        Frank T. Hovore
      High Altitude Leaf Beetles in Costa Rica
        R. Wills Flowers
      The Bark and Ambrosia Beetles of Costa Rican Cloud Forests
        Lawrence R. Kirkendall and Stephen L. Wood
    Lepidoptera: Moths and Butterflies
      Migration of Butterflies through Monteverde
        Rob Stevenson and William A. Haber
      Manataria maculata
        Rob Stevenson and William A. Haber
      Transparent Butterflies
        Alan R. Masters
      Variable Chemical Defense and Mimicry
        Alan R. Masters
    Diptera: Flies
      Phorid Flies of Costa Rica
        Brian V. Brown
      Syrphid Flies of Costa Rican Cloud Forests
        Manual A. Zumbado
    Hymenoptera: Sawflies, Wasps, Ants, and Bees
       Distribution Patterns of Cloud Forest Hymenoptera in Costa Rica
        Ian D. Gauld and Paul Hanson
      Eusocial Wasps of Monteverde
        Sean O'Donnell
      A Dual Mimicry Complex Involving Three Species of Eusocial Wasps in Monteverde
        Sean O'Donnell and Frank Joyce
      The Ants of Monteverde
        John T. Longino
      Crawfordapis luctuosa, a Ground-nesting Bee of the Central American Highlands
        Gard Otis
      Stingless Bees of Cloud Forests
        Jorge Lobo
      Africanized Honey Bees, Recent Immigrants to Monteverde
        Gard Otis
    Arachnids: Spiders, Scorpions, and Mites
      Vertical Distribution of Orb-weaving Spiders in a Colombian Cloud Forest
        Carlos Valderrama A. [Translated by Bob Law]
  Appendix 4.1. Host Plants of Selected Cercopoidea from Monteverde
    Daniel C. Peck
  Appendix 4.2. Preliminary List of Psylloidea Known from Costa Rican Cloud Forests
    David Hollis
  Appendix 4.3. List of Eusocial Wasps Collected from Monteverde
    Sean O'Donnell

CHAPTER 5. Amphibians and Reptiles
  J. Alan Pounds
    The Area and Its Fauna
    Distribution and Diversity
    Geography and History
    Population Ecology
    Reproductive Ecology
    Habitat Use
Essay 5.1. The Discovery of the Golden Toad
    Jay M. Savage
  Essay 5.2. Monteverde Salamanders, Golden Toads, and the Emergence of the Global Amphibian  Crisis
    J. Alan Pounds
  Essay 5.3. How do Meadow Treefrogs Decide Where to Lay Eggs?
    Martha L. Crump
  Essay 5.4. The Golden Toad Laboratory for Conservation
    J. Alan Pounds and Marlene Brenes
Appendix 5.1. Amphibians and Reptiles
CHAPTER 6. Birds
  Bruce E. Young and David B. McDonald
    Distribution, Species Richness, and Diversity
    Reproductive Biology
    Responses to Seasonality
    Population Biology
    Community Ecology
    Comparative Ecology
    Conservation Issues
  Essay 6.1. Cooperation Between Male Long-Tailed Manakins
    David B. McDonald
  Essay 6.2. Why Join Mixed-species Flocks? A Frugivore's Perspective
    Lisa K. Valburg
  Essay 6.3. The Cost of Social Foraging in Mixed-species Bird Flocks in Monteverde
    Jennifer Shopland
  Essay 6.4. Choosiness and Productivity in Wrens of Forests, Fragments, and Farms
    Kathy Winnett-Murray
  Essay 6.5. Do Fruit-eating Birds Actively Select or Avoid Insect Infested Fruits?
    Lisa K. Valburg
  Essay 6.6. Brown Jays: Complex Sociality in a Colonizing Species
    Dean A. Williams and Marcy F. Lawton
  Essay 6.7. Ecology and Sexual Dimorphism of Emerald Toucanets
    Cecilia M. Riley and Kimberly G. Smith
  Essay 6.8. The Roles of Long-Tailed Manakin Vocalizations in Cooperation and Courtship
    Jill M. Trainer
  Essay 6.9. Do Subordinate Species have an Advantage? Testing the Pointer Hypothesis with Tropical  Hummingbirds
    Harry M. Tiebout III
Appendix 6.1. Bird List of the Monteverde Area
    M. Fogden

CHAPTER 7. Mammals
  Robert M. Timm and Richard K. LaVal
    Distribution, Species Richness, and Diversity
    Research on Mammals in Monteverde
    Change in Altitudinal Limits of Life Zones as Suggested by Bats
    Historical Use and Change in Abundance of Mammals
    Conservation of Monteverde Mammals
  Essay 7.1. Observations on Monteverde's Mammals
    Robert M. Timm and Richard K. LaVal
  Essay 7.2. Singing Mice
    Catherine A. Langtimm
  Essay 7.3. Reproduction and Dynamics of Deer Mice
    Stephen D. Anderson
  Essay 7.4. Arboreal Mammals
    Catherine A. Langtimm
  Essay 7.5. Mice, Birds, and Pollination of Blakea chlorantha
    Catherine A. Langtimm and Robert Unnasch
  Essay 7.6. Tapir
    Robert O. Lawton
  Literature Cited
  Appendix 7.1. Mammals of Monteverde
    Robert M. Timm and Richard K. LaVal

CHAPTER 8. Plant-Animal Interactions
  K. Greg Murray, Sharon Kinsman, and Judith L. Bronstein
    Plant-pollinator Interactions
    Plant-frugivore Interactions
  Essay 8.1. Hummingbird Pollination of Epiphytic Ericaceae in the Cloud Forest Canopy
    William H. Busby
  Essay 8.2. Scarab Beetles, Elephant Ear (Xanthosoma robustum), and their Associates
    Lloyd Goldwasser
  Essay 8.3. Fig Pollination and Seed-dispersal Mutualisms in Monteverde
    Judith L. Bronstein
  Essay 8.4. The Reproductive Biology of Blakea and Topobea (Melastomataceae) in Monteverde
    Cecile Lumer
  Essay 8.5. Interactions Among Inga, Herbivores, Ants, and Insect Visitors to Foliar Nectaries
    Suzanne Koptur
  Essay 8.6. A Fly Larva Directly Alters Floral Sex in Centropogon solanifolius
    Martha E. Weiss
  Essay 8.7. Deceit Pollination in Begonia
    Jon Ågren and Douglas W. Schemske
  Essay 8.8. A Hypothesis About the Timing of Flowering and Fruiting in Competing Tropical Trees
    Nathaniel T. Wheelwright
  Essay 8.9. Fruiting Phenologies of Pioneer Plants: Constraints Imposed by Flowering Phenology,  Disturbance
  Regime, and Disperser Migration Patterns
    K. Greg Murray
  Essay 8.10. What Happens to Seeds of Vertebrate-dispersed Trees After Dispersal?
    Dan Wenny
  Essay 8.11. Specialized Seed Dispersal: Mistletoes and Fruit-eating Birds
    Sarah Sargent
  Essay 8.12. Seed Dispersal and Seedling Recruitment in a Lauraceous Tree Species
    J. P. Gibson
  Essay 8.13. Myrmecophytes
    John T. Longino
  Essay 8.14. The Importance of Different Bird Species as Seed Dispersers
    K. Greg Murray

CHAPTER 9. Ecosystem Ecology and Forest Dynamics
  Nalini M. Nadkarni, Robert O. Lawton, Kenneth L. Clark, Teri J. Matelson, and Doug Schaefer
    Forest Structure, Composition, and Dynamics
    Forest Biogeochemistry and Nutrient Cycling
    Future Research Directions
Essay 9.1. Microbial Biomass and Activity in Canopy Organic Matter and the Forest Floor in  Monteverde
    Eric Vance and Nalini M. Nadkarni
  Essay 9.2. Invertebrates in Canopy and Ground Organic Matter in Monteverde
    Nalini M. Nadkarni and John T. Longino
  Essay 9.3. Vesicular-arbuscular Mycorrhizae of Epiphytic and Terrestrial Piperaceae
    Blase Maffia, Nalini M. Nadkarni, and David P. Janos
  Essay 9.4. Factors Affecting the Initiation and Growth of Aboveground Adventitious Roots in a  Tropical Cloud  Forest Tree: An Experimental Approach
    Nalini M. Nadkarni
  Essay 9.5. Fine Litter Dynamics within the Tree Canopy of a Tropical Cloud Forest
    Nalini M. Nadkarni and Teri J. Matelson
  Essay 9.6. Longevity of Fallen Epiphytes in Monteverde
    Teri J. Matelson, Nalini M. Nadkarni, and John T. Longino

CHAPTER 10. Conservation in the Monteverde Zone: Contributions of Conservation Organizations
  Leslie J. Burlingame
    The Context
    The Quakers and Bosqueterno, S.A.
    The Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve
    The Monteverde Conservation League and Bosque Eterno de los Niños
    Santa Elena High School Cloud Forest Reserve
    The Monteverde Institute
    Environmental Education in Public and Private Schools
    Case Studies in Conservation and Sustainable Development
    Conclusion: Lessons from Monteverde and Topics for Future Research
  Essay 10.1. The Changing Face of Tourism in Monteverde
    Sam Grosby
  Essay 10.2. Pros and Cons of Ecotourism
    Francisco Chamberlain
  Essay 10.3. Debt-for-nature Swaps
    Leslie J. Burlingame
  Essay 10.4. The Community Process of Environmental Education in Monteverde
    Guillermo Vargas
  Essay 10.5. Monteverde 2020
    Leslie J. Burlingame
  Essay 10.6. El Buen Amigo
    Eugenio Vargas
  Essay 10.7. La Bella Farm (Finca La Bella)
    Leslie J. Burlingame
  Essay 10.8. San Gerardo: An Experiment in Sustainable Development
    John Boll
  Essay 10.9. Enlace Verde
    Wendy Gibbons and Nathaniel Scrimshaw
  Essay 10.10. The Monteverde Butterfly Garden
    Jim Wolfe
  Essay 10.11. Comité de Artesanos Santa Elena-Monteverde
    Leslie J. Burlingame
  Essay 10.12. La Campesinita
    Leslie J. Burlingame
  Essay 10.13. Human Voices Around the Forest
    Eugenio Vargas
  Appendix 10.1. Key to Abbreviations Used in This Chapter
    Leslie J. Burlingame

CHAPTER 11. Agriculture in Monteverde: Moving Toward Sustainability
  Katherine Griffith, Daniel Peck, and Joseph Stuckey
    The Monteverde Dairy Industry
    Lowland Dual Purpose and Beef Production
    Coffee Production
    Other Crops
    Livestock and Fowl
    Future Directions and Conclusions
  Essay 11.1. Prehistoric Cultures and Inhabitants of Monteverde
    Robert M. Timm
  Essay 11.2. The Agroecology of Prosapia: Spittlebugs, Froghoppers, and Pasture Pests
    Daniel Peck
  Essay 11.3. Brassicas as Biological Plows
    Jim Wolfe
  Essay 11.4. Pasture Burning in Monteverde
    Katherine Griffith
  Essay 11.5. Monteverde's Kitchen Gardens
    Katy VanDusen
  Essay 11.6. Pesticide Use in the Santa Elena Area
    Katherine Griffith
  Essay 11.7. "Frijol Tapado" or "Covered Beans"
    Katherine Griffith and Jim Wolfe
  Essay 11.8. The Pig Farm: "Sustainable Agriculture" or "an Abomination"?
    Katherine Griffith
  Essay 11.9. Land Use Controls and Easements
    Katherine Griffith and Nathaniel Scrimshaw

CHAPTER 12. Conservation Biology
  Nathaniel T. Wheelwright
    Richness, Endemism, Habitat Loss, and Population Declines: Threats to Biodiversity
    An Overview of Key Concepts in Conservation Biology
    The Status of Biodiversity in Monteverde: What is at Stake?
    Conservation Problems in Monteverde
    Can Conservation Biology Offer Solutions to Monteverde's Conservation Problems?
  Essay 12.1. Enduring Reasons to Preserve Species
    Nathaniel T. Wheelwright
  Essay 12.2. How have Humans Affected Bird Populations?
    Bruce E. Young
  Essay 12.3. The Influence of Fruit-eating Bats on the Dynamics and Composition of Neotropical  Premontane Cloud  Forests
    Eric Dinerstein
  Essay 12.4. The Importance of Pacific Slope Forest for Maintaining Regional Biodiversity
    Carlos F. Guindon
  Essay 12.5. La Ventana in Monteverde: A Migration Corridor for Insects
    Michelle Williamson and Chris Darling
  Essay 12.6. Altitudinal Migrations and Habitat Linkages: Using the Resplendent Quetzal  (Pharomachrus mocinno) as an Indicator for Evaluating the Design of the Monteverde Reserve  Complex
    George V. N. Powell, Robin D. Bjork, Sergio Barrios, and Vincente Espinoza
  Essay 12.7. Patterns in the Regeneration of Lauraceous Trees in Abandoned Pastures
    Martha Groom
  Essay 12.8. The Impact of the Monteverde Lechería on the Quebrada Guacimal
    Douglas E. Gill
  Essay 12.9. House Wrens in Monteverde: A Population Sink?
    Bruce E. Young
  Essay 12.10. Windbreaks as Corridors for Birds
    Karen Nielsen and Debra DeRosier
  Essay 12.11. Windbreaks as Habitats for Trees
    Celia A. Harvey
  Essay 12.12. The Search for Medicines from the Plants of Monteverde
    William N. Setzer

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