Ecosystem Ecology and Forest Dynamics
The mist that envelopes the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve is an important factor in forest dynamics, structure, and ecosystems processes.  Photo by Michael and Patricia Fogden.

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Bibliographic Citations on Ecosystem Ecology and Forest Dynamics

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Bibliographic Citations on Ecosystem Ecology and Forest Dynamics (Go to Full Bibliographic Citation Listing)

  • Ackerman, J. D. and J. C. Montalvo. 1990. Short and long term limitations to fruit production in a tropical orchid. Ecology 71:263-272.
  • Aide, T. M. 1987. Limbfalls: a major cause of sapling mortality for tropical forest plants. Biotropica 19:284-285.
  • Anderson, I., J. Levine, M. Poth, and P. Riggan. 1988. Enhanced biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following surface biomass burning. Journal of Geophysical Research 93:3893-3898.
  • Ashton, P. S. 1969. Speciation among tropical forest trees: some deductions in the light of recent evidence. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 1:155-196.
  • Atkin, L., and J. Proctor. 1988. Invertebrates in the litter and soil on Volcan Barva, Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology 4:307-310.
  • Ashton, P. S. 1969. Speciation among tropical forest trees: some deductions in the light of recent evidence. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 1:155-196.
  • Bates, J. 1992. Mineral nutrient acquisition and retention by bryophytes. Journal of Bryology 17:223-240.
  • Baylis, G. 1975. The magnolioid mycorrhiza and myotrophy in root systems derived from it. Pages 373-390 in F. Sanders, B. Mosse, and P. Tinker, editors. Endomycorrhizas. Academic Press, London, UK.
  • Beard, J. S. 1955. The classification of tropical American vegetation types. Ecology 36:89-100.
  • Bentley, B. 1987. Nitrogen fixation by epiphylls in a tropical rainforest. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 74:234-241.
  • Benzing, D. 1981. Mineral nutrition of epiphytes: an appraisal of adaptive features. Selbyana 5:219-223.
  • _____. 1983. Vascular epiphytes: a survey with special reference to their interactions with other organisms. Pages 11-24 in S. Sutton, T. Whitmore, and A. Chadwick, editors. Tropical rain forest: ecology and management. British Ecological Society, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK.
  • _____. 1990. Vascular epiphytes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Benzing, D., and J. Seeman. 1978. Nutritional piracy and host decline: a new perspective on the epiphyte-host relationship. Selbyana 2:133-148.
  • Bermudes, D., and D. Benzing. 1987. Fungi in neotropical epiphyte roots. BioSystems 23:65-73.
  • Blanchard, D. 1983. The production, distribution, and bacterial enrichment of the sea-salt aerosol. Pages 407-454 in P. Liss and W. Slinn, editors. Air-sea exchange of gases and particles. R. Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Bohlman, S., T. Matelson, and N. Nadkarni. 1995. Moisture and temperature patterns of canopy humus and forest floor soil of a montane cloud forest, Costa Rica. Biotropica 27:13-19.
  • Bormann, F. H., and G. E. Likens. 1979. Pattern and process in a forested ecosystem. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, USA.
  • Bowden, R. 1991. Inputs, outputs, and accumulation of nitrogen in an early successional moss (Polytrichum) ecosystem. Ecological Monographs 61:207-223.
  • Bray, J., and E. Gorham. 1964. Litter production in forests of the world. Advances in Ecological Research 2:101-157.
  • Brokaw, N. V. L. 1982. The definition of treefall gap and its effect on measures of forest dynamics. Biotropica 14:158-160.
  • _____. 1985. Treefalls, regrowth, and community structure in tropical forests. Pages 53-69 in S. T. A. Pickett and P. S. White, editors. The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA.
  • Brokaw, N. V. L., and L. R. Walker. 1991. Summary of the effects of Caribbean hurricanes on vegetation. Biotropica 23:442-447.
  • Brown, S., and A. Lugo. 1982. The storage and production of organic matter in tropical forests and their role in the global carbon cycle. Biotropica 14:161-187.
  • Bruijnzeel, L. and J. Proctor. 1995. Hydrology and biogeochemistry of tropical montane cloud forests: what do we really know? Pages 25-46 in L. Hamilton, J. Juvik, and F. Scatena, editors. Tropical montane cloud forests. East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
  • Burger, W. 1971. Flora Costaricensis (Fieldiana, vol. 35). Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Chazdon, R. L., and N. Fetcher. 1984. Photosynthetic light environments in a lowland tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 72:553-564.
  • Clark, K. 1994. The role of epiphytic bryophytes in the net accumulation and cycling of nitrogen in a tropical montane cloud forest. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
  • Clark, D. B., and D. A. Clark. 1989. The role of physical damage in the seedling mortality regime of a neotropical rainforest. Oikos 55:225-230.
  • Clark, K. and N. Nadkarni. 1990. Nitrate and ammonium ions in precipitation and throughfall of a neotropical cloud forest: implications for epiphyte mineral nutrition. Ecological Bulletin 71:59.
  • Clark, K., and N. Nadkarni. In press. Retention and release of inorganic nitrogen by epiphytic bryophytes in a tropical montane forest, Monteverde, Costa Rica. Biotropica.
  • Connell, J. H. 1978. Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199:1302-1310.
  • Cowles, H. C. 1899. The ecological relations of the vegetation on the sand dunes of Lake Michigan. Botanical Gazette 27:95-117, 167-202, 281-308, 361-391.
  • Coxson, D., and N. Nadkarni. 1995. Ecological roles of epiphytes in nutrient cycles of forest ecosystems. Pages 495-543 in M. Lowman and N. Nadkarni, editors. Forest canopies. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.
  • Crutzen, P. and M. Andreae. 1990. Biomasss burning in the tropics: impacts on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. Science 250:1669-1678.
  • Daft, M., and T. Nicolson. 1969. Effect of Endogone myycorrhiza on plant growth. III. Influence of inoculum concentration on growth and infection in tomato. New Phytologist 68:953-963.
  • Denslow, J. 1980. Gap partitioning among tropical rainforest trees. Biotropica 12(Supplement):2-7.
  • Denslow, J. S. 1987. Tropical rainforest gaps and tree species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 18:431-451.
  • Ewel, J., C. Barish, B. Brown, N. Price, and J. Raich. 1981. Slash and burn impacts on a Costa Rica wet forest site. Ecology 62:816-829.
  • Foster, D. R., and E. R. Boose. 1995. Hurricane disturbance regimes in temperate and tropical forest ecosystems. Pages 305-339 in M. P. Coutts and J. Grace, editors. Wind and trees. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Ginzburg, C. 1967. Origin of the adventitious root apex in Tamarix aphylla. American Journal of Botany 54:4-8.
  • Grace, J. 1977. Plant response to wind. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA.
  • Grubb, P. J. 1977. Control of forest growth and distribution on wet tropical mountains: with special reference to mineral nutrition. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 8:83-107.
  • Hallé, F., R. A. A. Oldeman, and P. B. Tomlinson. 1978. Tropical trees and forests: an architectural analysis. Springer-Verlag. New York, New York, USA.
  • Hartmann, H. T., and D. E. Kester. 1975. Plant propagation: principles and practices. 3rd edition. Prentice-Hall, Englewood, New Jersey, USA.
  • Hartshorn, G. 1990. An overview of neotropical forest dynamics. Pages 585-599 in A. H. Gentry, editor. Four neotropical rainforests. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
  • _____. 1980. Neotropical forest dynamics. Biotropica 12(Supplement):23-30.
  • Heaney, A. & Proctor, J. 1990. Preliminary studies on forest structure and floristics on Volcan Barva, Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology 6:307-320.
  • Hendry, C. D., C. Barrish, and E. Edgerton.1984. Precipitation chemistry at Turrialba, Costa Rica. Water Resources Research 20:1677-1684.
  • Holdridge, L. R. 1967. Life zone ecology. Tropical Science Center, San José, Costa Rica.
  • Hubbell, S. J. 1979. Tree dispersion, abundance, and diversity in a tropical dry forest. Science 203:1299-1309.
  • Hubbell, S. P., and R. B. Foster. 1986. Biology, chance, and history and structure of tropical rain forest tree communities. Pages 313-329 in J. Diamond and T. J. Case, editors. Community ecology. Harper and Row, New York, New York, USA.
  • Ingram, S., and N. Nadkarni. 1993. Composition and distribution of epiphytic organic matter in a neotropical cloud forest, Costa Rica. Biotropica 25:370-383.
  • Jaffe, M. J. 1980. Morphogenetic responses of plants to mechanical stimuli or stress. Bioscience 30:239-243.
  • Janos, D. 1990. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae influence tropical succession. Biotropica 12 (Supplement):56-64.
  • _____. 1993. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae of epiphytes. Mycorrhiza 4:1-4.
  • Jenik, J. 1973. Root systems of tropical trees. 8. Stilt-roots and allied adaptations. Preslia 45:250-264.
  • Johnson, D. and S. Lindberg. 1992. Atmospheric deposition and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Springer-Verlag. New York, New York, USA.
  • Keeney, D., and Nelson, D. 1982. Nitrogen-inorganic forms. Pages 643-698 in A.L. Page, editor. Methods of soil analysis, Part 2, 2nd Ed. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
  • Keller, M. D. Jacob, S. Wofsy, and R. Harriss. 1991. Effects of tropical deforestation on global and regional atmospheric chemistry. Climatic Change. 19:139-158.
  • Keller, M., E. Veldkamp, A. Weitz, and W. Reiners. 1993. Pasture age effects on soil-atmosphere trace gas exchange in a deforested area of Costa Rica. Nature 365:244-246.
  • Kellman, M., J. Hudson, and K. Sanmugadas. 1982. Temporal variability in atmospheric nutrient influx to a tropical ecosystem. Biotropica 14:1-9.
  • Kinsman, S. 1990. Regeneration by fragmentation in tropical montane forest shrubs. American Journal of Botany 77:1626-1633.
  • Kollman, F., and W. A. Cote. 1968. Principles of wood science technology. I. Solid wood. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, USA.
  • Kress, W. J. 1986. The systematic distribution of vascular epiphytes: an update. Selbyana 9:2-22.
  • Lawton, R. O. 1980. Wind and the ontogeny of elfin stature in a Costa Rican lower montane rain forest. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • _____. 1982. Wind stress and elfin stature in a montane forest tree: an adaptive explanation. American Journal of Botany 69:1224-1230.
  • _____. 1984. Ecological constraints on wood density in a tropical montane rain forest. American Journal of Botany 71:261-267.
  • _____. 1990. Canopy gaps and light penetration into a wind-exposed tropical lower montane rain forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20:659-667.
  • Lawton, R. O., and V. J. Dryer. 1980. The vegetation of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve. Brenesia 18:101-116.
  • Lawton, R. O., and F. E. Putz. 1988. Natural disturbance and gap-phase regeneration in a wind-exposed tropical cloud forest. Ecology 69:764-777.
  • Leigh, E. G. 1975. Structure and climate in tropical rain forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 6:67-86.
  • Lesica, P., and R. Antibus. 1990. The occurrence of mycorrhizal in vascular epiphytes of two Costa Rican forests. Biotropica 22:250-258.
  • Lewis, W. Jr. 1981. Precipitation chemistry and nutrient loading by precipitation in a tropical watershed. Water Resources Research 17:169-181.
  • Lieberman, D., G. S. Hartshorn, M. Lieberman, and R. Peralta. 1990. Forest dynamics at La Selva Biological Station 1969-1985. Pages 509-521 in A. H. Gentry, editor. Four neotropical rainforests. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
  • Lieberman, D., and M. Lieberman. 1987. Forest tree growth and dynamics at La Selva (1969-1982). Journal of Tropical Ecology 3:347-358.
  • Lobert, J., D. Scharffe, W. Hao, and P. Crutzen. 1990. Importance of biomass burning in the atmospheric budgets of nitrogen-containing gases. Nature 346:552-554.
  • Logan, J. 1983. Nitrogen oxides in the troposphere: global and regional budgets. Journal of Geophysical Research 88:10,785-10,807.
  • Longino, J., and N. Nadkarni. 1990. A comparison of ground and canopy leaf litter ants (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) in a neotropical montane forest. Psyche 97:81-94.
  • Longman, K., and J. Jenik. 1987. Tropical forest and its environment. Longman Scientific & Technical, Essex, UK.
  • Lugo, A., and C. Lowe. 1995. Tropical forests: management and ecology. Springer Verlag, New York, USA.
  • Lugo, A., and F. Scatena. 1992. Epiphytes and climate change research in the Caribbean: a proposal. Selbyana 13:123-130.
  • Madison, M. 1977. Vascular epiphytes: their systamatic occurrence and salient features. Selbyana 2:1-13.
  • Maffia, B. 1990. Endomycorrhizal status of selected plants in a neotropical cloud forest with special emphasis on Peperomia costaricensis C.DC. (Piperaceae). Master's Thesis, University of California Santa Barbara, California, USA.
  • Maffia, B., N. Nadkarni, and D. Janos. 1993. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae of epiphytic and terrestrial Piperaceae under field and greenhouse conditions. Mycorrhiza 4:5-9.
  • Matelson, T. J., N. M. Nadkarni, and J. T. Longino. 1993. Survivorship of fallen epiphytes in a neotropical cloud forest, Monteverde, Costa Rica. Ecology 74:265-269.
  • Matelson, T. J., N. M. Nadkarni, and R. Solano. 1995. Tree damage and annual mortality in a montane forest in Monteverde, Costa Rica. Biotropica 27:441-447.
  • McDade, L., K. Bawa, H. Hespenheide, and G. Hartshorn. 1994. La Selva: ecology and natural history of a neotropical rain forest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Moore, P. D. 1989. Upwardly mobile roots. Nature 341:188.
  • Moran, V., and T. R. E. Southwood. 1982. The guild composition of arthropod communities in trees. Journal of Animal Ecology 51:289-306.
  • Murray, K. G. 1986. Consequences of seed dispersal for gap-dependent plants: relationships between seed shadows, germination requirements, and forest dynamic processes. Pages 187-198 in A. Estrada and T. H. Fleming, editors. Frugivores and seed dispersal. W. Junk, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • _____. 1988. Avian seed dispersal of three neotropical gap-dependent plants. Ecological Monographs 58:271-298.
  • Nadkarni, N. M. 1981. Canopy roots: convergent evolution in rainforest nutrient cycles. Science 214:1023-1024.
  • _____. 1983. The effects of epiphytes on nutrient cycles within temperate and tropical rainforest tree canopies. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • _____. 1984. Epiphyte biomass and nutrient capital of a neotropical elfin forest. Biotropica 16:249-256.
  • _____. 1986a. A ecological overview and checklist of the epiphytes in the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve. Brenesia 10:35-39.
  • _____. 1986b. The nutritional effects of epiphytes on host trees with special reference to alteration of precipitation chemistry. Selbyana 9:44-51.
  • _____. 1988. Tropical rainforest ecology from a canopy perspective. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 12: 57-67.
  • _____. 1994. Factors affecting the initiation and elongation of above-ground adventitious roots in a tropical cloud forest tree: an experimental approach. Oecologia 100:94-97.
  • Nadkarni, N., T. Matelson, and W. A. Haber. 1995. Structural characteristics and floristic composition of a neotropical cloud forest, Monteverde, Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology 11:481-495.
  • Nadkarni, N. and J. T. Longino. 1990. Invertebrates in canopy and ground organic matter in a neotropical montane forest, Costa Rica. Biotropica 22:286-289.
  • Nadkarni, N., and T. Matelson. 1991. Dynamics of fine litterfall within the canopy of a tropical cloud forest, Monteverde. Ecology 72:2071-2082.
  • Nadkarni, N., and T. Matelson. 1992. Biomass and nutrient dynamics of epiphyte litterfall in a neotropical cloud forest, Costa Rica. Biotropica 24:24-30.
  • Nadkarni, N. M., and T. Matelson. 1992. Biomass and nutrient dynamics of fine litter of terrestrially rooted material in a neotropical montane forest, Costa Rica. Biotropica 24:113-120.
  • Nadkarni, N., and R. Primack. 1989. A comparison of mineral uptake by above- and below-ground roots of Salix syringiana using gamma spectrometry. Plant and Soil 113:39-45.
  • Olson, J. 1963. Energy storage and the balance of producers and decomposers in ecological systems. Ecology 44:322-331.
  • Nelson, D. and L. Sommers 1980. Total nitrogen analysis of soil and plant tissues. Journal of the Association of Analytical Chemistry 63:770-778.
  • Niklas, K. 1993. Plant biomechanics. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Odum, H. T. 1970. Rain forest structure and mineral cycling homeostasis. Pages H-7-14 in H. T. Odum, editor. A tropical rain forest. U.S. AEC Division of Technical Information, Springfield, Virginia, USA.
  • Orians, G. H. 1982. The influence of tree-falls in tropical forest on tree species richness. Tropical Ecology 23:255-279.
  • Parker, G. 1983. Throughfall and stemflow in the forest nutrient cycle. Advances in Ecological Research 13:57-133.
  • Parkinson, J., and S. Allen 1975. A wet oxidation procedure suitable for the determination of nitrogen and mineral nutrients in biological material. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 6:1-11.
  • Perry, D. 1978. A method of access into the crowns of emergent and canopy trees. Biotropica 10:155-157.
  • Phillips, J., and D. Hayman. 1970. Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 55:158-161.
  • Pickett, S. T. A., and P. S. White, editors. 1985. The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA.
  • Pike, L. 1978. The importance of lichens in mineral cycling. The Bryologist 81:247-157.
  • Pócs, T. 1980. The epiphytic biomass and its effect on the water balance of two rainforest types in the Uluguru Mountains. Acta Botanica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 26:143-167.
  • Proctor, J. 1983. Tropical forest litterfall. I. Problems of data comparison. Pages 267-285 in S. Sutton, T. Whitmore, and A. Chadwick, editors. Tropical rain forest: ecology and management. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK.
  • Proctor, J. 1984. Tropical forest litterfall. II. The data set. Pages 83-115 in S. Sutton, T. Whitmore, and A. Chadwick, editors. Tropical rain forest: The Leeds Symposium. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK.
  • Richards, P. W. 1952. The tropical rainforest: an ecological study. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Ricklefs, R. E. 1977. Environmental heterogeneity and plant species diversity: a hypothesis. American Naturalist 111:376-381.
  • Runkle, J. 1982. Patterns of disturbance in some old-growth mesic forests of eastern North America. Ecology 63:1533-1546.
  • St. John, T. 1980. Uma lista de especies de plantas tropicais brasileiras naturalmente infectadas com micorriza vesicular-arbuscular. Acta Amazonica 10:229-234.
  • Sanford, R. L., Jr., 1987. Apogeotropic roots in an Amazon rain forest. Science 235:1062-1064.
  • Schaefer, D. A. and W. A Reiners. 1990. Throughfall chemistry and canopy processing mechanisms. Pages 241-284 in S. E. Lindberg, L. Page, and S. Norton, editors. Acid Precipitation. Volume 3. Sources, Deposition and Canopy Interactions. Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.
  • Seastedt, T. R. 1984. The role of microarthropods in decomposition and mineralization processes. Annual Review of Entomology 29:25-46.
  • Seifriz, W. 1953. The oecology of thicket formation. Vegetatio 4:155-164.
  • Sena Gomes, A. R., and T. T. Kozlowski. 1980. Growth responses and adaptations of Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings to flooding. Plant Physiology 66:267-271.
  • Shugart, H. H., and D. C. West. 1981. Long-term dynamics of forest ecosystems. American Scientist 69:647-652.
  • Sigmon, J. T., F. S. Gilliam, and M. E. Partin.1989. Precipitation and throughfall chemistry for a montane hardwood forest ecosystem: potential contributions from cloud water. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19:1240-1247.
  • Strong, D. R. 1977. Epiphyte loads, tree falls, and perennial forest disruption: a mechanism for maintaining higher tree species righness in the tropics without animals. Journal of Biogeography 4:215-218.
  • Systat. The system for Statistics. 1988. Evanston, Illinois, USA.
  • Ulrich, B. 1983. Interaction of forest canopies with atmospheric constituents: SO2, alkali, and earth alkali cations and chloride. Pages 33-45 in B. Ulrich and J. Pankrath, editors. Effects of accumulation of air pollutants in forest ecosystems. D. Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • van Steenis, C. G. 1956. Rejuvenation as a factor in judging the status of vegetation types: the biological nomad theory. Pages 212-215 in Proceedings of the Kandy Symposium on Tropical Vegetation. UNESCO, Paris, France.
  • Vance, E., and N. Nadkarni. 1990. Microbial biomass and activity in canopy organic matter and the forest floor of a tropical cloud forest. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 22:677-684.
  • Vance, E., and N. Nadkarni. 1992. Root biomass distribution in a moist tropical montane forest. Plant and Soil 142:31-39.
  • Vitousek, P. 1984. Litterfall, nutrient cycling and nutrient limitation in tropical forest. Ecology 65:285-298.
  • Vitousek, P., and R. Sanford, Jr. 1986. Nutrient cycling in moist tropical forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17:137-167.
  • Wheelwright, N. T., W. A. Haber, K. G. Murray, and C. Guindon. 1984. Tropical fruit-eating birds and their food plants. A survey of a Costa Rican lower montane forest. Biotropica 16:173-192.
  • White, P. S. 1979. Pattern, process, and natural disturbance in vegetation. Botanical Review 45:229-299.
  • Williams-Linera, G., and R. O. Lawton. 1995. The ecology of hemiephiphyte in forest canopies. Pages 255-283 in M. Lowman and N. Nadkarni, editors. Forest canopies. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.
  • Wilson, B. F., and R. R. Archer. 1977. Reaction wood: induction and mechanical action. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 28:23-43.
  • Young, T. P., and S. P. Hubbell. 1991. Crown asymmetry, treefalls, and repeat disturbance in a broadleaved forest. Ecology 72:1464-1471.
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