Stephen W. Ingram

This is a list of all the species of vascular epiphytes known to occur within the MCFPs Triangle area bounded by the Senderos Río, Nuboso, and Pantanoso, and from a four hectare area of lower montane wet forest set aside for research use (southwest of Sendero Nuboso) (Map 1.4).  The most typical growth habit observed is included for all species.  Degrees of abundance given are based on general observations and are not derived quantitatively.  Abundant species (A) are the most common and the most easily observed.  Common species (C) are fairly easy to observe, but less numerous than the most abundant class.  Uncommon epiphyte species (U) are seldom seen because they are few and widely dispersed.
Family/Species Life Form Abundance1 Reproduction2
Alzatea verticillata hemiepiphyte all year 
Ilex costaricensis   hemiepiphyte   VIII 
I. hemiepiphytica  hemiepiphyte  IX-IV 
I. vulcanicola   erect shrub   II-VIII 
Anthurium davidsoniae  erect herb  XI 
A.  friedrichsthalii   pendent herb II,VII 
A. microspadix climbing herb A II,VII
A. monteverdense erect herb C VII 
A. obtusilobum  erect herb C II,IV,XI 
A. pittieri  erect herb  U VII
A. protensum   pendent herb  A II,VII 
A. ramonense  erect herb  U IV
A. scandens ssp. pusillum climbing herb  A II,VII 
Monstera dissecta climbing herb C IV 
Philodendron wilburii, ined  climbing herb U XI
Stenospermation sessile  erect herb A II,IV,VII 
Syngonium hoffmannii  climbing herb A VII 
Oreopanax capitatus  hemiepiphyte C
O. oerstedianus  hemiepiphyte A IV 
Schefflera robusta climbing shrub U VII 
S. rodrigueziana hemiepiphyte  U
Neomirandea angularis  erect herb
N. araliifolia erect herb C
N. arthodes erect herb U
N. eximia erect herb C
N. guevarae erect herb U
N. parasitica erect herb A  II,IV,VII,XI 
N. psoralea erect herb C
Pentacalia candelariae climbing shrub  C  IV 
P. streptothamna climbing shrub  C  IV
Sinclairia polyantha  climbing shrub  U
Begonia estrellensis climbing herb  A  VII-XI 
B. glabra climbing herb C  IV 
B. heydei  erect herb C  II,VII 
B. strigillosa erect herb U XI 
            Bignoniaceae [Now placed in Scrophulariaceae]
Schlegelia fuscata climbing shrub C IV
Catopsis nitida  erect rosette A IV-X
Guzmania angustifolia  erect rosette II,VII,XI 
G. coriostachya erect rosette II,VII
G. nicaraguensis erect rosette II,IV,VII 
G. plicatifolia erect rosette C II,VII,XI 
G. stenostachya erect rosette  C II 
Pitcairnia atrorubens erect rosette XI 
P. brittoniana hemiepiphyte  A II 
Tillandsia adpressa var. tonduziana  bulbous rosette  VII,XI 
Tillandsia excelsa erect rosette U IV
T. insignis  erect rosette A II,VII,XI 
T. punctulata  bulbous rosette C I, II, IV 
Vriesea bracteosa erect rosette U
V. capitata  erect rosette 
V. comata  erect rosette C II 
V. graminifolia erect rosette U XI 
V. incurva bulbous rosette U IV 
V. notata  erect rosette C  II 
V. pedicellata erect rosette C II 
V. tonduziana  erect rosette A XI
V. umbrosa erect rosette  C XI 
V. viridiflora erect rosette C VII
V. vittata  erect rosette  IV 
V. werckleana  erect rosette
Epiphyllum lepidocarpum climbing succulent
Burmeistera microphylla erect herb C VII,XI
B. tenuiflora  erect herb all year
Clusia minor hemiepiphyte 
C. palmana hemiepiphyte C
C. rotundata hemiepiphyte C
C. stenophylla hemiepiphyte II 
C. torresii hemiepiphyte
Maianthemum monteverdense arching herb C  IV,VII,XI
Weinmannia wercklei  tree 
Asplundia microphylla climbing herb A IV 
A. vagans climbing herb A XI 
Sphaeradenia laucheana ssp. irazuensis erect herb C IV,XI 
Dioscorea lepida climbing herb II,IV,VII 
Cavendishia bracteata  erect shrub C  II,XI 
C. capitulata erect shrub A II,XI 
C. complectens erect shrub C II,XI
C. melastomoides erect shrub C VII
C. quercina erect shrub  IV
Disterigma humboldtii scandent shrub VII
Gaultheria gracilis erect shrub II 
Macleania insignis erect shrub U IV 
Psammisia ramiflora arching shrub U XI
Satyria warszewiczii   arching shrub  C IV
Sphyrospermum buxifolium  erect shrub VII
S. cordifolium erect shrub C VII 
Vaccinium poasanum erect shrub IV
Capanea grandiflora arching shrub U IV
Columnea anisophylla arching shrub U II,VII
C. consanguinea arching shrub U XI
C. glabra  erect shrub C
C. gloriosa erect shrub C
C. lepidocaulis erect shrub C VII,XI
C. magnifica pendent herb C II,IV
C. microcalyx pendent herb A II,XI
C. verecunda  arching shrub C II,XI
Drymonia conchocalyx arching shrub A II,XI
D. rubra  arching shrub A all year
Phyllonoma tenuidens erect shrub U X,XI 
Utricularia jamesoniana erect herb U IX 
U. praetermissa erect herb U VI
Marcgravia brownei climbing shrub IX-XI 
Norantea costaricensis  hemiepiphyte
Blakea anomala  erect shrub IV,VIII,XI 
B. chlorantha erect shrub U
B. gracilis erect shrub C
B. grandiflora erect shrub C
B. tuberculata hemiepiphyte C XI
Miconia grandidentata erect shrub U IV
Topobea brenesii hemiepiphyte C IV
T. pittieri hemiepiphyte U
Ficus crassiuscula** hemiepiphyte  C
F. tuerckheimii  hemiepiphyte A
F. velutina hemiepiphyte U
Cybianthus costaricanus erect shrub A IV,VII,XI 
Acostaea costaricensis   clumped herb all year 
Ada chlorops erect herb C X,XI
Barbosella geminata clumped herb U I-XII 
B. prorepens clumped herb I-XII 
Brachionidium pusillum climbing herb U IV 
Campylocentrum longicalcaratum erect herb C V-VII 
Cochleanthes discolor erect herb U III-VII
C. picta erect herb  U XII-III 
Cryptocentrum calcaratum erect herb  A I-XII 
C. latifolium erect herb C VII-IX
Cyclopogon elatus erect herb U XI 
C. prasophyllum erect herb U II
Dichaea brachypoda pendent herb C IV-XII 
D. cryptarrhena pendent herb A III-IX
D. lankesteri pendent herb U IV
D. cf. oxyglossa pendent herb U VII
D. trichocarpa pendent herb U IV-VII 
Dracula erythrochaete clumped herb C VI
Elleanthus aurantiacus erect herb C IV
 E. glaucophyllus erect herb A IV
E. tonduzii  erect herb U
Encyclia abbreviata erect herb C IV
E. pseudopygmaea erect herb A XI,XII
E. vespa erect herb U V-X
Epidendrum cf. albertii erect herb U VII
E. anoglossum erect herb C III-X
E. coriifolium erect herb U
E. firmum erect herb A I-XII 
E. lankesteri arching herb U V-VIII 
E. laucheanum  arching herb U III-X
 E. myodes erect herb U XI,VII
E. palmense erect herb U III 
E. phragmites erect herb U VII
E. polychlamys erect herb U III-IV
E. ramonianum erect shrub A VII,VIII
E. ramosum erect herb  C III,VIII
E. sanchoi erect herb U  I-XII 
E. selaginella erect herb U VI,VII 
E. subnutans arching herb A VII 
E. summerhayesii erect herb U VII
Erythrodes killipii  erect herb U II,III,VII,VIII
Eurystyles auriculata erect herb U II,XI
Lepanthes acostae clumped herb U VII
L. comet-halleyi clumped herb U VI,VIII
L. confusa clumped herb C XI 
L. ferrelliae clumped herb C  VII 
L. jimenezii  clumped herb  U VI,VII,X 
L. mentosa clumped herb VI,XI 
L. minutilabia clumped herb U IV
L. monteverdense clumped herb U VI 
L. pygmaea  clumped herb C  II, VI 
L. ramonensis clumped herb U VI 
Lockhartia hercodonta pendent herb U VIII-XI
Lycaste leucantha erect herb C  IX
Masdevallia chasei  clumped herb U VIII-XII 
M. chontalensis clumped herb C I-XII 
M. erinacea clumped herb U V-VII 
M. molossoides clumped herb C V-VII 
M. nidifica clumped herb A I-XII 
M. rolfeana clumped herb U IX-XI 
M. schizopetala clumped herb U VI-VIII
M. striatella clumped herb C IX-I
Maxillaria angustisegmenta erect herb U  X-II
M. angustissima erect herb U VIII-XII 
M. biolleyi erect herb C  I 
M. bracteata  arching herb C I-III 
M. brunnea erect herb C IX-XII
M. dendrobioides erect herb C X
M. foliosa erect herb U VIII
M. fulgens erect herb C VIII-XII
 M. inaudita  erect herb C I,II 
M. linearifolia  arching herb C VII-IX 
M. microphyton erect herb U VII
M. minor  pendent herb C VII-XII
M. nasuta erect herb U IV-X
M. pachyacron erect herb U X-III
M. parvilabia erect herb C III 
M. pseudoneglecta arching herb U
M. reichenheimiana erect herb U IV-X
M. sigmoidea erect herb C XI
M. umbratilis  erect herb U I,II 
M. wrightii erect herb U IX
Myoxanthus sempergemmatus  clumped herb U VII
Oerstedella centropetala erect herb U X-II
O. endresii  erect herb U II,III 
O. exasperata erect shrub C I-XII 
Oncidium bracteatum erect herb C  IV-XI
O. globuliferum climbing herb U V,VIII
O. heteranthum erect herb C I-XII
O. luteum  erect herb U X-XII 
Ornithocephalus gladiatus pendent herb U VII
Platystele microtatantha clumped herb C I-XII 
Pleurothallis amparoana clumped herb C V,VI
P. bothros clumped herb U II 
P. cardiothallis erect herb C IX-XII
P. carpinterae clumped herb U XII 
P. casualis clumped herb U II
P. cogniauxiana clumped herb A I-XII 
P. costaricensis clumped herb C I-XII
P. crescentilabia  clumped herb U  I-XII
P. crocodiliceps clumped herb U II
P. cuspidata clumped herb U II
P. eumecocaulon clumped herb C XI,II 
P. fractiflexa clumped herb U XI 
P. gonioglossa clumped herb C VII, IX
P. grandis clumped herb U
P. homalantha clumped herb A XI-II
P. immersa clumped herb U XI
P. imraei  clumped herb U II 
P. monteverdensis clumped herb U
P. palliolata clumped herb U VIII-XI
P. papillifera clumped herb U VI 
P. phyllocardia clumped herb U VI 
P. pompalis clumped herb U IX 
P. powellii erect herb  U II,VIII 
P. rowleei clumped herb A VII, XII 
P. ruscifolia clumped herb A VI-VIII 
P. saccata  clumped herb U
P. segoviensis clumped herb C V-VII 
P. segregatifolia clumped herb C X-II 
P. sicaria clumped herb U  III
P. strumosa clumped herb U IV,VI
P. tuerckheimii clumped herb U  VIII
Restrepia trichoglossa clumped herb C  I-XII
Scaphyglottis amparoana arching herb U XI
S. lindeniana  erect herb U XII-II 
S. micrantha erect herb C III
S. prolifera erect herb C I-XII 
S. sigmoidea arching herb U XII, I
Sobralia amabilis arching herb C VI-I 
Stelis microchila clumped herb C II,VII,XI 
S. pardipes  clumped herb C X
S. parvula clumped herb C VII 
S. triangulabia clumped herb U VII
Stellilabium campbellorum  erect herb U XI,III
S. monteverdense erect herb U III 
Trichosalpinx cedralensis clumped herb U XI 
T. memor clumped herb U
Xylobium elongatum erect herb A IX-XI 
X. powellii  erect herb U XII
Peperomia angularis erect herb C VII
P. costaricensis  climbing herb C XI
P. hylophila erect herb C VII
P. palmana erect herb  C II 
P. peltilimba climbing herb A II,VII 
P. pittieri erect herb U II 
P. poasana erect herb C
P. pseudoalpina erect herb U
P. rotundifolia climbing herb U IV,XI 
P. serpens climbing herb A VII,XI
P. tenella erect herb C IV
P. tenellaeformis erect herb U II 
P. ternata erect herb C II,VII 
P. tetraphylla erect herb C
Hillia maxonii erect shrub U
H.  triflora arching shrub C II,IV
Psychotria maxonii erect herb C II,VII,XI
P. pithecobia erect shrub A II,IV
Markea neurantha climbing shrub U  II
Schultesianthus megalandrus erect shrub U
S. venosus erect shrub C II,VII
          PTERIDOPHYTA (genera and species only)
Antrophyum chlorosporum erect herb U IV
A. lineatum erect herb C II,VII,XI 
Asplenium cirrhatum  arching herb C II
A. cuspidatum arching herb C II
A. dissectum arching herb C II,VII 
A. gomezianum erect herb U II
A. pululahuae arching herb C  II,XI
A. rosenstockianum arching herb U II
A. rutaceum arching herb C II,VII 
A. salicifolium arching herb U XI 
Blechnum fragile climbing herb A IV
Campyloneurum angustifolium erect herb C  II
C. falcoideum climbing herb U XI 
C. sphenodes climbing herb A IV,VII 
Ceradenia jungermannioides clumped herb U VII 
Cheiroglossa palmata erect herb  U VII 
Cochlidium rostratum clumped herb C II
C. serrulatum clumped herb C VII
Elaphoglossum ambiguum erect herb A VII 
E. atrobarbatum erect herb U II
E. auricomum erect herb U VII
E. auripilum erect herb U IV 
E. erinaceum erect herb C VII
E. guatemalense erect herb U VII
E. lanceiforme erect herb C XI
E. latifolium erect herb C IV
E. lingua erect herb U VII
E. pallidum erect herb C VII
E. palmense erect herb A IV,VII 
E. peltatum climbing herb A VII 
E. sherringii erect herb C II
Huperzia dichaeoides pendent herb  C  IV,VII 
H. filiformis pendent herb U  II
Hymenophyllum microcarpum climbing herb C II 
H. subrigidum climbing herb C IV 
Lellingeria limula clumped herb U VII 
Lomariopsis maxonii climbing herb U IV
Micropolypodium taenifolium clumped herb U II,VII
Nephrolepis pendula pendent herb U VII 
Niphidium crassifolium erect herb C VII
Oleandra bradei pendent herb C II 
Pleopeltis complanata climbing herb C VII 
P. fructuosa  climbing herb C IV,VII 
Polypodium fraxinifolium arching herb  C  II,VII,XI 
P. furfuraceum erect herb U XI
P. myriolepis climbing herb C VII 
P. ptilorhizon climbing herb A II,XI 
Terpsichore alfarii climbing herb  U VII,XI 
T. taxifolia  erect herb U VII
Trichomanes capillaceum climbing herb C II 
T. diaphanum climbing herb C II
T. krausii climbing herb C II
T. ludovicin climbing herb U XI 
T. radicans climbing herb C II 
Vittaria lineata pendent herb C II 
1. Abundance:  A = abundant, C = common, U = uncommon
2. Reproduction:  months (indicated by Roman numerals) in which flowers or fruits were observed (or spores, in the case of ferns)
* [Often begins life as an epiphyte in the elfin forest and as a free-standing tree at lower elevations, see Chapter 3.G.8.]
** [Usually begins life as a vine rooted in ground soil, see Chapter 3.G.8.]


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