Plant-Animal Interactions
 
Leaf-cutter ant (Acromyrmex sp.) cutting lily petal.  Photo by Dan Perlman.
A synopsis of this section is being prepared.  Thank you for your patience.

Bibliographic citations on Plant-Animal Interactions

Data Sets

Return to Monteverde Home Page
 

Bibliographic citations on Plant-Animal Interactions (Go to Full Bibliographic Citation Listing)

  • Abrahamson, W. G. 1989. Plant-animal interactions. McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, USA.
  • ┼gren, J., and D. W. Schemske. 1991. Pollination by deceit in a neotropical monoecious herb, Begonia involucrata. Biotropica 23:235-241.
  • ┼gren, J., and D. W. Schemske. 1993. Outcrossing rate and inbreeding depression in two annual monoecious herbs, Begonia hirsuta and B. semiovata. Evolution 47:125-135.
  • Ali, S. A. 1931. The role of the sunbirds and the flowerpeckers in the propagation and the distribution of the tree parasite Loranthus longiflorus Desr. in the Konkan (W. India). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 75:943-945.
  • Anstett, M. C., G. Michaloud, and F. Kjellberg. 1995. Critical population size for fig/wasp mutualism in a seasonal environment: effect and evolution of the duration of receptivity. Oecologia 103:453-461.
  • Anstett, M. C., F. Kjellberg, and J. L. Bronstein. 1996. Waiting for wasps: consequences for the pollination dynamics of Ficus pertusa L. Journal of Biogeography 23:459-466.
  • Augspurger, C. K. 1983a. Seed dispersal of the tropical tree Platypodium elegans, and the escape of its seedlings from fungal pathogens. Journal of Ecology 71:759-771.
  • _____. 1983b. Offspring recruitment around tropical trees: changes in cohort distance with time. Oikos 40:189-196.
  • Ayala, F. J., J. K. Wetterer, J. T. Longino, and D. L. Hartl. 1996. Molecular phylogeny of Azteca ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the colonization of Cecropia trees. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 5:423-428.
  • Baker, H. G. 1976. "Mistake" pollination as a reproductive system with special reference to the Caricaceae. Pages 161-169 in J. Burley and B. T. Styles, editors. Tropical trees: variation, breeding and conservation. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA.
  • Baker, H. G., and I. Baker. 1983. Floral nectar sugar and constituents in relation to pollinator type. Pages 117-141 in C. E. Jones and R. J. Little, editors. Handbook of experimental pollination biology. Scientific and Academic Editions, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, New York, USA.
  • Baker, H. G., K. S. Bawa, G. W. Frankie, and P. A. Opler. 1983. Reproductive biology of plants in tropical forests. Pages 183-215 in F. B. Golley, editor. Tropical rain forest ecosystems structure and function. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Baker, I., and H. G. Baker. 1979. Sugar ratios in nectar. Phytochemical Bulletin 12:43-45.
  • Bawa, K. S. 1974. Breeding systems of tree species of a lowland tropical community. Evolution 28:85-92.
  • _____. 1980a. Evolution of dioecy in flowering plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11:15-39.
  • _____. 1980b. Mimicry of male by female flowers and intrasexual competition for pollinators in Jacaratia dolichaula (D. Smith) Woodson (Caricaceae). Evolution 34:467-474.
  • _____. 1990. Plant-pollinator interactions in tropical rain forests. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21:399-422.
  • _____. 1992. Mating systems, genetic differentiation and speciation in tropical rain forest plants. Biotropica 24:250-255.
  • _____. 1994. Pollinators of tropical dioecious angiosperms: a reassessment? No, not yet. American Journal of Botany 81:456-460.
  • Bawa, K. S., P. S. Ashton, and S. Mohd Nor. 1990. Reproductive ecology of tropical forest plants: management issues. Pages 3-13 in K. S. Bawa and M. Hadley, editors. Reproductive ecology of tropical forest plants. Parthenon Publishing, Carnforth, UK.
  • Bawa, K. S., S. H. Bullock, D. R. Perry, R. E. Coville, and M. H. Grayum. 1985. Reproductive biology of tropical lowland rain forest trees. II. Pollination systems. American Journal of Botany 72:346-356.
  • Beattie, A. J. 1985. The evolutionary ecology of ant-plant mutualisms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Bequaert, J. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. IV. Ants in their diverse relations to the plant world. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45:333-583.
  • Boshier, D. H., M. R. Chase, and K. S. Bawa. 1995a. Population genetics of Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae), a neotropical tree. 2. Mating system. American Journal of Botany 82:476-483.
  • Boshier, D. H., M. R. Chase, and K. S. Bawa. 1995b. Population genetics of Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae), a neotropical tree. 3. Gene flow, neighborhood, and population substructure. American Journal of Botany 82:484-490.
  • Boucher, D. H., editor. 1985. The biology of mutualism: ecology and evolution. Oxford University Press, New York, New York, USA.
  • Bronstein, J. L. 1987. Maintenance of species-specificity in a neotropical fig-pollinator wasp mutualism. Oikos 48:39-46.
  • _____. 1988a. Limits to fruit production in a monoecious fig: consequences of an obligate mutualism. Ecology 69:207-214.
  • _____. 1988b. Mutualism, antagonism, and the fig-pollinator interaction. Ecology 69:1298-1302.
  • _____. 1988c. Predators of fig wasps. Biotropica 20:215-219.
  • _____. 1991. The nonpollinating wasp fauna of Ficus pertusa: exploitation of a mutualism? Oikos 61:175-186.
  • _____. 1992. Seed predators as mutualists: ecology and evolution of the fig/pollinator interaction. Pages 1-44 in E. Bernays, editor. Insect-plant interactions, volume IV. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Louisiana, USA.
  • _____. 1994. Our current understanding of mutualism. Quarterly Review of Biology 69:31-51.
  • _____. 1995. The plant-pollinator landscape. Pages 256-288 in L. Hansson, L. Fahrig, and G. Merriam, editors. Mosaic landscapes and ecological processes. Chapman and Hall, London, UK.
  • Bronstein, J., and K. Hoffman. 1987. Spatial and temporal variation in frugivory at a neotropical fig, Ficus pertusa. Oikos 49:261-268.
  • Bronstein, J. L., P. H. Gouyon, C. Gliddon, F. Kjellberg, and G. Michaloud. 1990. Ecological consequences of flowering asynchrony on monoecious figs: a simulation study. Ecology 71:2145-2156.
  • Buchmann, S. L. 1983. Buzz pollination in angiosperms. Pages 73-113 in C. E. Jones and R. J. Little, editors. Handbook of experimental pollination biology. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, New York, USA.
  • Burd, M. 1994. Bateman's principle and plant reproduction: the role of pollen limitation in fruit and seed set. The Botanical Review 60:83-139.
  • Burger, W. 1977. Flora Costaricensis, Family #52, Moraceae. Fieldiana, Botany 40:94-215.
  • Burger, W, and H. van der Werff. 1990. Lauraceae. Flora Costaricensis. Fieldiana (Botany New Series) 23:12-21.
  • Byrne, M. M., and D. J. Levey. 1993. Removal of seeds from frugivore defecations by ants in a Costa Rican rain forest. Vegetatio 107/108:363-374.
  • Cane, J. H. 1993. Reproductive role of sterile pollen in Saurauia (Actinidiaceae), a cryptically dioecious neotropical tree. Biotropica 25:493-495.
  • Carroll, C. R. 1983. Azteca (hormiga Azteca, Azteca ants, Cecropia ants). Pages 691-693 in D. H. Janzen, editor. Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Castro, O. C. 1993. Chemical and biological extractives of Lauraceae species in Costa Rican tropical forests. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry 27:65-87.
  • Chase, M. R., D. H. Boshier, and K. S. Bawa. 1995. Population genetics of Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae), a neotropical tree. 1. Genetic variation in natural populations. American Journal of Botany 82:468-475.
  • Chase, M., R. Kesseli, and K. S. Bawa. 1996. Microsatellite markers for population and conservation genetics of tropical trees. American Journal of Botany 83:51-57.
  • Chen, J., and B. J. D. Meeuse. 1972. Induction of indole synthesis in the appendix of Sauromatum guttatum Schott. Plant and Cell Physiology 13:831-841.
  • Clark, D. B., and D. A. Clark. 1984. Spacing dynamics of a tropical rain forest tree, evaluation of the Janzen-Connell model. American Naturalist 124:769-788.
  • Crawley, M. J. 1992. Seed predators and plant population dynamics. Pages157-191 in M. Fenner, editor. Seeds: the ecology of regeneration in plant communities. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
  • Crepet, W. L. 1983. The role of insect pollination in the evolution of the Angiosperms. Pages 31-50 in L. Real, editor. Pollination biology. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, USA.
  • Cruden, R. W. 1972. Pollinators in high-elevation ecosystems: relative effectiveness of birds and bees. Science 176:1439-1440.
  • Cruden, R. W., S. M. Hermann, and S. Peterson. 1983. Patterns of nectar production and plant-pollinator coevolution. Pages 80-125 in B. Bentley and T. Elias, editors. The biology of nectaries. Columbia University Press, New York, New York, USA.
  • Cruden, R. W., S. Kinsman, R. E. Stockhouse III, and Y. B. Linhart. 1976. Pollination, fecundity and the distribution of moth-flowered plants. Biotropica 8:204-210.
  • Cunningham, S. A. 1991. Experimental evidence for pollination of Banksia spp. by non-flying mammals. Oecologia 87:86-90.
  • Dafni, A. 1992. Pollination ecology: a practical approach. Oxford University Press, New York, New York, USA.
  • Davidar, P. 1987. Fruit structure in two neotropical mistletoes and its consequences for seed dispersal. Biotropica 19:137-139.
  • Davidar, P., and E. S. Morton. 1986. The relationship between fruit crop sizes and fruit removal rates by birds. Ecology 67:262-265.
  • Davidson, D. E., and B. L. Fisher. 1991. Symbiosis of ants with Cecropia as a function of light regime. Pages 289-309 in C. R. Huxley and D. F. Cutler, editors. Ant-plant interactions. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Davidson, D. E., and D. McKey. 1993a. The evolutionary ecology of symbiotic ant-plant relationships. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 2:13-83.
  • Davidson, D. E., and D. McKey. 1993b. Ant-plant symbioses: stalking the Chuyachaqui. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8:326-332.
  • Davidson, D. W., R. B. Foster, R. R. Snelling, and P. W. Lozada. 1991. Variable composition of some tropical ant-plant symbioses. Pages 145-162 in P. W. Price, T. M. Lewinsohn, G. W. Fernandes, and W. W. Benson, editors. Plant-animal interactions: evolutionary ecology in tropical and temperate regions. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, New York, USA.
  • Dayanandan, S., D. N. C. Attygalla, A. W. W. L. Abeygunasekera, I. A. U. N. Gunatilleke and C. V. S. Gunatilleke. 1990. Phenology and floral morphology in relation to pollination of some Sri Lankan Dipterocarps. Pages 103-134 in K. S. Bawa and M. Hadley, editors. Reproductive ecology of tropical forest plants. Parthenon Publishing, Carnforth, UK.
  • Devlin, B., and A. G. Stephenson. 1984. Factors that influence the duration of the staminate and pistillate phases of Lobelia cardinalis flowers. Botanical Gazette 145:323-328.
  • DeVries, P. J. 1987. The butterflies of Costa Rica and their natural history: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.
  • Dinerstein, E. 1983. Reproductive ecology of fruit bats and seasonality of fruit production in a Costa Rican cloud forest. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • _____. 1986. Reproductive ecology of fruit bats and the seasonality of fruit production in a Costa Rican cloud forest. Biotropica 18:307-318.
  • Docters van Leeuwen, W. M. 1954. On the biology of some Javanese Loranthaceae and the role birds play in their life history. Beaufortia 4:105-207.
  • Endress, P. K. 1994. Diversity and evolutionary biology of tropical flowers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Faegri, K., and L. van der Pijl. 1979. The principles of pollination ecology. Third revised edition. Pergammon Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Feinsinger, P. 1976. Organization of a tropical guild of nectarivorous birds. Ecological Monographs 46:257-291.
  • _____. 1978. Ecological interactions between plants and hummingbirds in a successional tropical community. Ecological Monographs 48:269-287.
  • _____. 1983. Coevolution and pollination. Pages 283-310 in D. J. Futuyma and M. Slatkin, editors. Coevolution. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.
  • _____. 1987. Effects of plant species on each other's pollination: is community structure influenced? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2:123-126.
  • Feinsinger, P., and W. H. Busby. 1987. Pollen carryover: experimental comparisons between morphs of Palicourea lasiorrachis (Rubiaceae), a distylous, bird-pollinated, tropical treelet. Oecologia 73:231-235.
  • Feinsinger, P., and H. M. Tiebout III. 1991. Competition among plants sharing hummingbird pollinators: laboratory experiments on a mechanism. Ecology 72:1946-1952.
  • Feinsinger, P., L. A. Swarm, and J. A. Wolfe. 1985. Nectar-feeding birds on Trinidad and Tobago: comparison of diverse and depauperate guilds. Ecological Monographs 55:1-28.
  • Feinsinger, P., W. H. Busby, and H. M. Tiebout III. 1988b. Effects of indiscriminate foraging by tropical hummingbirds on pollination and plant reproductive success: experiments with two tropical treelets (Rubiaceae). Oecologia 76:471-474.
  • Feinsinger, P., H. M. Tiebout III, and B. E. Young. 1991. Do tropical bird-pollinated plants exhibit density-dependent interactions? Field experiments. Ecology 72:1953-1963.
  • Feinsinger, P., K. G. Murray, S. Kinsman, and W. H. Busby. 1986. Floral neighborhoods and pollination success within four hummingbird-pollinated plant species in a Costa Rican cloud forest. Ecology 67:449-464.
  • Feinsinger, P., H. M. Tiebout III, B. E. Young, and K. G. Murray. 1992. New perspectives on neotropical plant-hummingbird interactions. Acta XX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici: 1605-1610.
  • Feinsinger, P., J. H. Beach, Y. B. Linhart, W. H. Busby, and K. G. Murray. 1987. Disturbance, pollinator predictability, and pollination success among Costa Rican cloud forest plants. Ecology 68:1294-1305.
  • Feinsinger, P., W. H. Busby, K. G. Murray, J. H. Beach, W. Z. Pounds, and Y. B. Linhart. 1988a. Mixed support for spatial heterogeneity in species interactions: hummingbirds in a tropical disturbance mosaic. The American Naturalist 131:33-57.
  • Fleming, T. H., and B. L. Partridge. 1984. On the analysis of phenological overlap. Oecologia 62:344-350.
  • Fonseca, C. R., and G. Ganade. 1996. Asymmetries, compartments and null interactions in an Amazonian ant-plant community. Journal of Animal Ecology 65:339-347
  • Forbes, W. A. 1880. Contributions to the anatomy of passerine birds. Part 1. On the structure of the stomach in certain genera of Tanagers. Proceedings of the Zoological Society 10:143-147.
  • Forel, A. 1899. Formicidae. Biologia Centrali-Americana, Hymenoptera 3:1-160.
  • Forget, P. M. 1993. Post-dispersal predation and scatterhoarding of Dipteryx panamensis (Papilionaceae) seeds by rodents in Panama. Oecologia 94:255-261
  • Forget, P. M., and T. Milleron. 1991. Evidence for secondary seed dispersal by rodents in Panama. Oecologia 87:596-599.
  • Foster, R. B. 1982. Famine on Barro Colorado Island. Pages 201-212 in E. G. Leigh, Jr., A. S. Rand, and D. M. Windsor, editors. The ecology of a tropical forest: seasonal rhythms and long-term changes. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
  • Frankie, G. W., H. G. Baker, and P. A. Opler. 1974. Comparative phenological studies of trees in tropical wet and dry forests in the lowlands of Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 62:881-919.
  • Frankie, G. W., W. A. Haber, P. A. Opler, and K. S. Bawa. 1983. Characteristics and organization of the large bee pollination system in the Costa Rican dry forest. Pages 411-447 in C. E. Jones and R. J. Little, editors. Handbook of experimental pollination biology. Scientific and Academic Editions, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, New York, USA.
  • Frazee, J., M. Gargiullo, L. McDade, D. Dearing, E. Macklin, J. Ratsirarson, J. C. Uyehara, and D. Wijesinghe. 1990. Phenology of flower and nectar production in Centropogon. OTS 90-1 coursebook, Organization for Tropical Studies, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
  • Futuyma, D. J., and M. Slatkin, editors. 1983. Coevolution. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.
  • Gentry, A. H. 1982. Patterns of neotropical plant species diversity. Evolutionary Biology 15:1-84.
  • Gibson, J. P. 1995. Evolutionary ecology of reproduction in Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae), a gynodioecious tropical tree. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
  • Gibson, J. P., and N. T. Wheelwright. 1995. Genetic structure in a population of a tropical tree Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae): influence of avian seed dispersal. Oecologia 103:49-54.
  • Gibson, J. P., and N. T. Wheelwright. 1996. Mating system dynamics of Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae), a gynodioecious tropical tree. American Journal of Botany 83:890-894.
  • Gilbert, L. E. 1980. Food web organization and conservation of neotropical diversity. Pages 11-34 in M. E. SoulÚ and B.A. Wilcox, editors. Conservation biology: an evolutionary-ecological perspective. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.
  • Gilbert, L. E., and P. H. Raven, editors. 1975. Coevolution of animals and plants. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, USA.
  • Gleason, A. H. 1945. On Blakea and Topobea. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 72:385-393.
  • Goldwasser, L. 1987. I. Branching patterns, generating rules, and astogenetic trajectories in Bugula (Cheilostomata: Bryozoa); II. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of mutualism. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Berkeley, California, USA.
  • Goldwasser, L., G. Schatz, and H. Young. 1993. A new method for marking Scarabaeidae and other beetles. Coleopterists Bulletin 47:21-26.
  • Grimaldi, D. A. 1987. Phylogenetics and taxonomy of Zygothrica (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The American Museum of Natural History Bulletin 186:103-268.
  • Haber, W. A. 1983a. Checklist of Sphingidae. Pages 645-650 in D. Janzen, editor. Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • _____. 1983b. Solanum siparunoides. Pages 326-328 in D. Janzen, editor. Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • _____. 1993. Seasonal migration of monarchs and other butterflies in Costa Rica. Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, Los Angeles, California. Science Series No. 38:201-207.
  • Haber, W. A., and G. W. Frankie. 1983. Luehea candida. Pages 269-270 in D. Janzen, editor. Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Haber, W. A., and G. W. Frankie. 1989. A tropical hawkmoth community: Costa Rican dry forest Sphingidae. Biotropica 21:155-172.
  • Hall, P., L. C. Orrell, and K. S. Bawa. 1994. Genetic diversity and mating system in a tropical tree, Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae). American Journal of Botany 81:1104-1111.
  • Hall, P., S. Walker, and K. S. Bawa. 1996. Effect of forest fragmentation on genetic diversity and mating system in a tropical tree, Pithecellobium elegans. Conservation Biology 10:757-768.
  • Hamrick, J. L., and M. D. Loveless. 1989. The genetic structure of tropical tree populations: associations with reproductive biology. Pages 129-146 in J. H. Bock and Y. B. Linhart, editors. The evolutionary ecology of plants. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
  • Hamrick, J. L., D. A. Murawski, and J. D. Nason. 1993. The influence of seed dispersal mechanisms on the genetic structure of tropical tree populations. Vegetatio 107/108:281-297.
  • Harper, J. L. 1977. Population biology of plants. Academic Press, London, UK.
  • Heithaus, E. R., T. H. Fleming, and P. A. Opler. 1975. Foraging patterns and resource utilization in seven species of bats in a seasonal forest. Ecology 56:841-854.
  • Herre, E. A. 1987. Optimality, plasticity and selective regime in fig wasp sex ratios. Nature 329:627-629.
  • _____. 1989. Coevolution of reproductive characteristics in 12 species of New World figs and their pollinator wasps. Experientia 45:637-646.
  • Herrera, C. M. 1987. Components of pollinator "quality": comparative analysis of a diverse insect assemblage. Oikos 50:79-90.
  • _____. 1996. Floral traits and plant adaptation to insect pollinators: a devil's advocate approach. Pages 65-87 in D. G. Lloyd and S. C. H. Barrett, editors. Floral biology: studies in floral evolution in animal-pollinated plants. Chapman and Hall, New York, New York, USA.
  • Herrera, C. M., P. Jordano, L. Lopez-Soria, and J. A. Amat. 1994. Recruitment of a mast-fruiting, bird-dispersed tree: bridging frugivore activity and seedling establishment. Ecological Monographs 64:315-344.
  • Hoppes, W. G. 1987. Pre- and post-foraging movements of frugivorous birds in an eastern deciduous forest woodland, USA. Oikos 49:281-290.
  • Howe, H. F. 1985. Gomphothere fruits: a critique. American Naturalist 125:853-865.
  • _____. 1977. Bird activity and seed dispersal of a tropical wet forest tree. Ecology 58:539-550.
  • _____. 1993. Specialized and generalized dispersal systems: where does 'the paradigm' stand? Vegetatio 107/108:3-13.
  • Howe, H. F., and R. B. Primack. 1975. Differential seed dispersal by birds of the tree Casearia nitida (Flacourtiaceae). Biotropica 7:278-283.
  • Howe, H. F., and G. F. Estabrook. 1977. On intraspecific competition for dispersal agents in tropical trees. American Naturalist 111:817-832.
  • Howe, H. F., and D. De Steven. 1979. Fruit production, migrant bird visitation, and seed dispersal of Guarea glabra in Panama. Oecologia 39:185-196.
  • Howe, H. F., and G. A. Vande Kerckhove. 1979. Fecundity and seed dispersal by birds of a tropical tree. Ecology 60:180-189.
  • Howe, H. F., and G. A. Vande Kerckhove. 1981. Removal of nutmeg (Virola surinamensis) crops by birds. Ecology 62:1093-1106.
  • Howe, H. F., and W. Richter. 1982. Effect of seed size on seedling size in a neotropical nutmeg (Virola surinamensis): a within and between crop analysis. Oecologia 53:347-351.
  • Howe, H. F., and J. Smallwood. 1982. Ecology of seed dispersal. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13:201-228.
  • Howe, H. F., and L. C. Westley. 1988. Ecological relationships of plants and animals. Oxford University Press, New York, New York, USA.
  • Howe, H. F., E. W. Schupp, and L. C. Westley. 1985. Early consequences of seed dispersal for a neotropical tree (Virola surinamensis). Ecology 66:781-791.
  • Inouye, D. W. 1983. The ecology of nectar robbing. Pages 153-173 in B. Bentley and T. Elias, editors. The biology of nectaries. Columbia University Press, New York, New York, USA.
  • Isler, M. L. and P. R. Isler. 1987. The Tanagers: natural history, distribution, and identification. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
  • Janzen, D. H. 1966. Coevolution of mutualism between ants and acacias in Central America. Evolution 20:249-275.
  • _____. 1967a. Interaction of the Bull's-Horn acacia (Acacia cornigera L.) with an ant inhabitant (Pseudomyrmex ferruginea F. Smith) in eastern Mexico. Kansas University Science Bulletin 47:315-558.
  • _____. 1967b. Fire, vegetation structure, and the ant x acacia interaction in Central America. Ecology 48:26-35.
  • _____. 1969. Allelopathy by myrmecophytes: the ant Azteca as an allelopathic agent of Cecropia. Ecology 50:147-153.
  • _____. 1971. Escape of Cassia grandis L. beans from predators in time and space. Ecology 52:964-979.
  • _____. 1973. Dissolution of mutualism between Cecropia and its Azteca ants. Biotropica 5:15-28.
  • _____. 1979. How to be a fig. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 10:3-51.
  • _____. 1980. When is it coevolution? Evolution 34:611-612.
  • _____. 1983. Insects. Pages 619-645 in D. Janzen, editor. Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Janzen, D. H., and P. Martin. 1982. Neotropical anachronisms: what the gomphotheres ate. Science 215:19-27.
  • Jones, C. E., and R. J. Little, editors. 1983. Handbook of experimental pollination biology. Van Nostrand Rheinhold, New York, New York, USA.
  • Jordano, P. 1987. Patterns of mutualistic interactions in pollination and seed dispersal: connectance, dependence asymmetries, and coevolution. American Naturalist 129:657-677.
  • _____. 1992. Fruits and frugivory. Pages 105-156 in M. Fenner, editor. Seeds: the ecology of regeneration in plant communities. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
  • Kalko, E. K. V., E. A. Herre, and C. O. Handley, Jr. 1996. Relation of fig fruit characteristics to fruit-eating bats in the New and Old World tropics. Journal of Biogeography 23:565-576.
  • Kathuria, P., K. N. Ganeshaiah, R. Uma Shaanker, and R. Vasudeva. 1995. Is there dimorphism for style lengths in monoecious figs? Current Science 68:1047-1049.
  • Kearns, C. A., and D. W. Inouye. 1993. Techniques for pollination biologists. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, Colorado, USA.
  • Kerley, G. I. H., and T. Erasmus. 1991. What do mice select for in seeds? Oecologia 86:261-267.
  • Knuth, P. 1906. Handbook of flower pollination, vol. 1. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • _____. 1908. Handbook of flower pollination, vol. 2. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • _____. 1909. Handbook of flower pollination, vol. 3. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Koptur, S. 1983. Flowering phenology and floral biology of Inga (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). Systematic Botany 8:354-368.
  • _____. 1984a. Outcrossing and pollinator limitation of fruit set: breeding systems of neotropical Inga trees (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). Evolution 38:1130-1143.
  • _____. 1984b. Experimental evidence for defense of Inga (Mimosoideae) saplings by ants. Ecology 65:1787-1793.
  • _____. 1985. Alternative defenses against herbivores in Inga (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) over an elevational gradient. Ecology 66:1639-1650.
  • _____. 1991. Extrafloral nectaries of herbs and trees: modelling the interaction with ants and parasitoids. Pages 213-229 in D. Cutler and C. Huxley, editors. Ant-plant interactions. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • _____. 1994. Floral and extrafloral nectars of Costa Rican Inga trees: a comparison of their constituents and composition. Biotropica 26:276-284.
  • Koptur, S., W. A. Haber, G. W. Frankie, and H. G. Baker. 1988. Phenological studies of shrub and treelet species in tropical cloud forests of Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology 4:323-346.
  • Koptur, S., E. N. Davila, D. R. Gordon, B. J. D. McPhail, C. G. Murphy, and J. B. Slowinski. 1990. The effect of pollen removal on the duration of the staminate phase of Centropogon talamancensis. Brenesia 33:15-18.
  • Kress, W. J., and J. H. Beach. 1994. Flowering plant reproductive systems. Pages 161-182 in L. A. McDade, K. S. Bawa, H. A. Hespenheide, and G. S. Hartshorn, editors. La Selva: ecology and natural history of a neotropical rain forest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Kress, W. J., G. E. Schatz, M. Andrianifahanana, and H. S. Morland. 1994. Pollination of Ravenala madagascariensis (Strelitziaceae) by lemurs in Madagascar: evidence for an archaic coevolutionary system? American Journal of Botany 81:542-551.
  • Lackie, P. M., C. D. Thomas, M. J. Brisco, and D. N. Hepper. 1986. On the pollination ecology of Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae) at Monteverde, Costa Rica. Brenesia 25-26:203-213.
  • Lamarck, J. B. de. 1778. Flore franšaise. Bd. 3. p. 1150.
  • Lawton, R. O., L. D. Alexander, W. N. Setzer and K. G. Byler. 1993. Floral essential oil of Guettarda poasana inhibits yeast growth. Biotropica 25:483-486.
  • Leˇn, J. 1966. Central American and West Indian species of Inga (Leguminosae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 53:365-459.
  • Letourneau, D. K. 1983. Passive aggression: an alternative hypothesis for the Piper-Pheidole association. Oecologia 60:215-217.
  • Levey, D. J. 1986. Methods of seed processing by birds and seed deposition patterns. Pages 147-158 in A. Estrada and T. H. Fleming, editors. Frugivores and seed dispersal. W. Junk, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • _____. 1988. Tropical wet forest treefall gaps and distributions of understory birds and plants. Ecology 69:1076-1089.
  • Levey, D. J., and M. M. Byrne. 1993. Complex ant-plant interactions: rain forest ants as secondary dispersers and post-dispersal seed predators. Ecology 74:1802-1812.
  • Levin, D. A., and W. W. Anderson. 1970. Competition for pollinators between simultaneously flowering species. American Naturalist 104:455-467.
  • Linhart, Y. B., W. H. Busby, J. H. Beach, and P. Feinsinger. 1987a. Forager behavior, pollen dispersal, and inbreeding in two species of hummingbird-pollinated plants. Evolution 41:679-682.
  • Linhart, Y. B., P. F. Feinsinger, J. H. Beach, W. H. Busby, K. G. Murray, W. Zuchowski Pounds, S. Kinsman, C. A. Guindon, and M. Kooiman. 1987b. Disturbance and predictability of flowering plants in bird-pollinated cloud forest plants. Ecology 68:1696-1710.
  • Little, R. J. 1983. A review of floral food deception mimicries with comments on floral mutualism. Pages 294-309 in C. E. Jones and R. J. Little, editors. Handbook of experimental pollination biology. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, New York, USA.
  • Loiselle, B. A., and J. G. Blake. 1991. Temporal variation in birds and fruits along an elevational gradient in Costa Rica. Ecology 72:180-193.
  • Loiselle, B. A., E. Ribbens, and O. Vargas. 1996. Spatial and temporal variation of seed rain in a tropical lowland wet forest. Biotropica 28:82-95.
  • Longino, J. T. 1989a. Geographic variation and community structure in an ant-plant mutualism: Azteca and Cecropia in Costa Rica. Biotropica 21:126-132.
  • _____. 1989b. Taxonomy of the Cecropia-inhabiting ants in the Azteca alfari species group: evidence for two broadly sympatric species. Contributions in Science (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County) 412:1-16.
  • _____. 1991a. Azteca ants in Cecropia trees: taxonomy, colony structure, and behavior. Pages 271-288 in C. Huxley and D. Cutler, editors. Ant-plant interactions. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • _____. 1991b. Taxonomy of the Cecropia-inhabiting Azteca ants. Journal of Natural History 25:1571-1602.
  • _____. 1996. Taxonomic characterization of some live-stem inhabiting Azteca (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Costa Rica, with special reference to the ants of Cordia (Boraginaceae) and Triplaris (Polygonaceae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 5:131-156.
  • Longino, J. T., and P. Hanson. 1995. The ants (Formicidae). Pages 588-620 in P. Hanson and I. Gauld, editors. The Hymenoptera of Costa Rica. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Lumer, C. 1980. Rodent pollination of Blakea (Melastomataceae) in a Costa Rican cloud forest. Brittonia 32:512-517.
  • Lumer, C., and R. Schoer. 1986. Pollination of Blakea austin-smithii and B. penduliflora (Melastomataceae) by small rodents in Costa Rica. Biotropica 18:363-364.
  • Machado, C. A., E. A. Herre, S. McCafferty, and E. Bermingham. 1996. Molecular phylogenies of fig pollinating and non-pollinating wasps and the implications for the origin and evolution of the fig-fig wasp mutualism. Journal of Biogeography 23:531-542.
  • Madison, M. 1979. Protection of developing seeds in neotropical Araceae. Aroideana 2:52-61.
  • Mazer, S. J., and N. T. Wheelwright. 1993. Fruit size and shape: allometry at different taxonomic levels in bird-dispersed plants. Evolutionary Ecology 7:556-575.
  • McDade, L. M., and S. Kinsman. 1980. The impact of floral parasitism in two neotropical hummingbird-pollinated plant species. Evolution 34:944-958.
  • McKey, D. 1975. The ecology of coevolved seed dispersal systems. Pages 159-191 in L. E. Gilbert and P. H. Raven, editors. Coevolution of animals and plants. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, USA.
  • _____. 1991. Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of a mutualism: Leonardoxa (Caesalpiniaceae) and its associated ants. Pages 310-334 in C. R. Huxley and D. F. Cutler, editors. Ant-plant interactions. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Meeuse, B. J. D. 1975. Thermogenic respiration in aroids. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 26:117-126.
  • Milton, K. 1978. Behavioral adaptations to leaf-eating by the mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata). Pages 535-550 in G. G. Montgomery, editor. The ecology of arboreal folivores. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
  • Milton, K., D. M. Windsor, D. W. Morrison, and M. A. Estribi. 1982. Fruiting phenologies of two neotropical Ficus species. Ecology 63:752-762.
  • Montgomery, G. G., and M. E. Sunquist. 1978. Habitat selection and use by two-toed and three-toed sloths. Pages 329-360 in G. G. Montgomery, editor. The ecology of arboreal folivores. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
  • Moore, L. A., and M. F. Willson. 1982. The effect of microhabitat, spatial distribution, and display size on dispersal of Lindera benzoin by avian frugivores. Canadian Journal of Botany 60:557-560.
  • MŘller, F. 1876. Ueber das Haarkissen am Blattstiel der Imbauba (Cecropia), das GemŘsebeet der Imbauba-Ameise. Jenaische Zeitschrift fur Medizin und Naturwissenschaft 10:281-286.
  • _____. 1880-1881. Die Imbauba und ihre BeschŘtzer. Kosmos 8:109-116.
  • Murawski, D. A. 1987. Floral resource variation, pollinator response, and potential pollen flow in Psiguria warscewiczii. Ecology 68:1273-1282.
  • _____. 1995. Reproductive biology and genetics of tropical trees from a canopy perspective. Pages 457-493 in M. D. Lowman and N. M. Nadkarni, editors. Forest canopies. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.
  • Murray, D. R., editor. 1986. Seed dispersal. Academic Press, Sydney, Australia.
  • Murray, K. G. 1986a. Avian seed dispersal of neotropical gap-dependent plants. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
  • _____. 1986b. Consequences of seed dispersal for gap-dependent plants: relationships between seed shadows, germination requirements, and forest dynamic processes. Pages 187-198 in A. Estrada and T. H. Fleming, editors. Frugivores and seed dispersal. W. Junk, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • _____. 1987. Selection for optimal fruit crop size in bird-dispersed plants. American Naturalist 129:18-31.
  • _____. 1988. Avian seed dispersal of three neotropical gap-dependent plants. Ecological Monographs 58:271-298.
  • Murray, K. G., P. Feinsinger, W. H. Busby, Y. B. Linhart, J. H. Beach, and S. Kinsman. 1987. Evaluation of character displacement among plants in two tropical pollination guilds. Ecology 68:1283-1293.
  • Murray, K. G., S. Russell, C. M. Picone, K. Winnett-Murray, W. Sherwood, and M. L. Kuhlmann. 1994. Fruit laxatives and seed passage rates in frugivores: consequences for plant reproductive success. Ecology 75:989-994.
  • Nadkarni, N. M., and T. J. Matelson. 1989. Bird use of epiphyte resources in neotropical trees. Condor 91:891-907.
  • Nagy, K. A., D. K. Odell, and R. S. Seymour. 1972. Temperature regulation by the inflorescence of Philodendron. Science 178:1195-1197.
  • Nitecki, M. H. 1983. Coevolution. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Pipkin, S. B., R. L. Rodriguez, and J. Leon. 1966. Plant host specificity among flower-feeding neotropical Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae). American Naturalist 100:135-156.
  • Podolsky, R. D. 1992. Strange floral attractors: pollinator attraction and the evolution of plant sexual systems. Science 258:791-793.
  • Poole, R. W., and B. J. Rathcke. 1979. Regularity, randomness and aggregation in flowering phenologies. Science 203:470-471.
  • Powell, G. V. N., and R. Bjork. 1995. Implications of intratropical migration on reserve design: a case study using Pharomachrus mocinno. Conservation Biology 9:354-362.
  • Price, M. V., and S. H. Jenkins. 1986. Rodents as seed consumers and dispersers. Pages 191-235 in D. R. Murray, editor. Seed dispersal. Academic Press, Sydney, Australia.
  • Proctor, M., P. Yeo, and A. Lack. 1996. The natural history of pollination. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, USA.
  • Queller, D. C., and K. F. Goodnight. 1989. Estimating relatedness using genetic markers. Evolution 43:258-275.
  • Raskin, I., A. Ehman, W. R. Melander, B. J. D. Meeuse. 1987. Salicylic acid: a natural inducer of heat production in Arum lillies. Science 237:1601-1602.
  • Rathcke, B. 1983. Competition and facilitation among plants for pollination. Pages 305-329 in L. Real, editor. Pollination biology. Academic Press. Orlando, Florida, USA.
  • Real, L., editor. 1983. Pollination biology. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, USA.
  • Reid, N. 1991. Coevolution of mistletoes and frugivorous birds? Australian Journal of Ecology 16:457-470.
  • Renner, S. S., and J. P. Feil. 1993. Pollinators of tropical dioecious angiosperms. American Journal of Botany 80:1100-1107.
  • Renner, S. S., and R. E. Ricklefs. 1995. Dioecy and its correlates in the flowering plants. American Journal of Botany 82:596-606.
  • Restrepo, C. 1987. Aspectos ecologicos de la diseminaciˇn de cinco especies de muerdagos por aves. Humboldtia 1:1-116.
  • Richards, A. J. 1986. Plant breeding systems. George Allen and Unwin, London, UK.
  • Rickson, F. R. 1971. Glycogen plastids in MŘllerian body cells of Cecropia peltata - a higher green plant. Science 173:344-347.
  • Riley, C. M., and K. G. Smith. 1986. Flower eating by Emerald Toucanets in Costa Rica. Condor 88:396-397.
  • Root, R. B. 1967. The niche exploitation pattern of the blue-gray gnatcatcher. Ecological Monographs 37:317-350.
  • Sargent, S. 1994. Seed dispersal of mistletoes by birds in Monteverde, Costa Rica. Ph.D. Dissertation. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Schatz, G. E. 1990. Some aspects of pollination biology in Central American forests. Pages 69-84 in K. S. Bawa and M. Hadley, editors. Reproductive ecology of tropical forest plants. Parthenon Publishing, Carnforth, UK..
  • Schemske, D. W., and N. Brokaw. 1981. Treefalls and the distribution of understory birds in a tropical forest. Ecology 62:938-945.
  • Schemske, D. W., and C. C. Horvitz. 1984. Variation among floral visitors in pollination ability: a precondition for mutualism specialization. Science 225:519-521.
  • Schemske, D. W., and J. ┼gren. 1995. Deceit pollination and selection on female flower size in Begonia involucrata: an experimental approach. Evolution 49:207-214.
  • Schemske, D. W., J. ┼gren, and J. Le Corff. 1996. Deceit pollination in the monoecious, neotropical herb Begonia oaxacana (Begoniaceae). Pages 292-318 in D. G. Lloyd and S. C. H. Barrett, editors. Floral biology: studies on floral evolution in animal-pollinated plants. Chapman and Hall, New York, New York, USA.
  • Schupp, E. W. 1986. Azteca protection of Cecropia: ant occupation benefits juvenile trees. Oecologia 70:379-385.
  • _____. 1988. Seed and early seedling predation in the forest understory and in treefall gaps. Oikos 51:71-78.
  • Simpson, B. B., and J. L. Neff. 1983. Evolution and diversity of floral rewards. Pages 142-159 in C. E. Jones and R. J. Little, editors. Handbook of experimental pollination biology. Scientific and Academic Editions, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. New York, New York, USA.
  • Smith, C. M., and J. L. Bronstein. 1996. Site variation in reproductive synchrony in three neotropical figs. Journal of Biogeography 23:477-485.
  • Snow, B. K. 1977. Territorial behavior and courtship of the male Three-wattled Bellbird. Auk 94:623-645.
  • Snow, D. W. 1965. A possible selective factor in the evolution of fruiting seasons in tropical forest. Oikos 15:274-281.
  • _____. 1971. Evolutionary aspects of fruit-eating in birds. Ibis 113:194-202.
  • Snow, B. K., and D. W. Snow. 1972. Feeding niches of hummingbirds in a rinidad valley. Journal of Animal Ecology 41:471-485.
  • Snow, B. K., and D. W. Snow. 1988. Birds and berries: a study of an ecological interaction. T. and A. D. Poyser, Calton, UK.
  • Standley, P. C. 1938. Flora of Costa Rica. Publication 420, vol. XVIII, part III, Botanical Series, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Stapanian, M. A. 1982. A model for fruiting display: seed dispersal by birds for mulberry seeds. Ecology 63:1432-1443.
  • Stein, B. 1992. Sicklebill hummingbirds, ants, and flowers. Bioscience 42:27-33
  • Stiles, F. G. 1975. Ecology, flowering phenology, and hummingbird-pollination of some Costa Rican Heliconia species. Ecology 56:285-301.
  • _____. 1977. Coadapted competitors: the flowering seasons of hummingbird-pollinated plants in a tropical forest. Science 198:1177-1178.
  • _____. 1985. Seasonal patterns and coevolution in the hummingbird-flower community of a Costa Rican sub-tropical forest. Pages 757-787 in P. A. Buckley, M. S. Foster, E. S. Morton, R. S. Ridgely, and F. G. Buckley, editors. Neotropical ornithology. Ornithological Monographs Number 36, American Ornithologist's Union, Washington, D.C., USA.
  • Stout, J. 1979. An association of an ant, a mealy bug, and an understory tree from a Costa Rican rain forest. Biotropica 11:309-311.
  • Sutton, G. M. 1951. Dispersal of mistletoe by birds. Wilson Bulletin 63:235-237.
  • Tanner, E. V. J. 1982. Species diversity and reproductive mechanisms in Jamaican trees. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 18:263-278.
  • Terborgh, J. 1986. Keystone plant resources in the tropical forest. Pages 330-344 in M. E. SoulÚ, editor. Conservation biology: the science of scarcity and diversity. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.
  • Thompson, J. N. 1982. Interaction and coevolution. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York, USA.
  • _____. 1994. The coevolutionary process. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Tiebout, H. M., III. 1991. Daytime energy management by tropical hummingbirds: responses to foraging constraint. Ecology 72:839-851.
  • Tiffney, B. H. 1986. Evolution of seed dispersal syndromes according to the fossil record. Pages 273-305 in D. R. Murray, editor. Seed dispersal. Academic Press, Sydney, Australia.
  • van der Pijl, L. 1982. Principles of dispersal in higher plants. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, USA.
  • Vazquez-Yanes, C., and A. Orozco-Segovia. 1984. Ecophysiology of seed germination in the tropical humid forests of the world: a review. Pages 37-50 in E. Medina, H. A. Mooney, and C. Vazquez-Yanes, editors. Physiological ecology of plants in the wet tropics. W. Junk, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Ward, P. S. 1991. Phylogenetic analysis of pseudomyrmecine ants associated with domatia-bearing plants. Pages 335-352 in C. R. Huxley and D. F. Cutler, editors. Ant-plant interactions. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Weiss, M. R. In press. Pollen-feeding fly alters floral phenotypic gender in Centropogon solanifolius (Campanulaceae). Biotropica.
  • West, S. A., and E. A. Herre. 1994. The ecology of the New World fig-parasitising wasps Idarnes and implications for the evolution of the fig-pollinator mutualism. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 258:67-72.
  • West, S. A., E. A. Herre, D. M. Windsor, and P. R. S. Green. 1996. The ecology and evolution of the New World non-pollinating fig wasp communities. Journal of Biogeography 23:447-458.
  • Wetmore, A. 1914. The development of the stomach in the euphonias. Auk 31:458-461.
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1942. Studies of neotropical ant-plants and their ants. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 90:1-262.
  • Wheelwright, N. T. 1983. Fruits and the ecology of Resplendent Quetzals. Auk 100:286-301.
  • _____. 1985a. Fruit size, gape width, and the diets of fruit-eating birds. Ecology 66:808-818.
  • _____. 1985b. Competition for dispersers, and the timing of flowering and fruiting in a guild of tropical trees. Oikos 44:465-477.
  • _____. 1986. A seven-year study of individual variation in fruit production in tropical bird-dispersed tree species in the family Laraceae. Pages 19-35 in A. Estrada, and T. H. Fleming, editors. Frugivores and seed dispersal. W. Junk, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • _____. 1988a. Fruit-eating birds and bird-dispersed plants in the tropics and temperate zone. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 3:270-274.
  • _____. 1988b. Four constraints on coevolution between plants and their seed dispersers: a tropical case history. Proceedings of the International Ornithological Congress XIX:827-845.
  • _____. 1991. How long do fruit-eating birds stay in the plants where they feed? Biotropica 23:29-40.
  • _____. 1993. Fruit size in a tropical tree species: variation, preference by birds, and heritability. Vegetatio 107/108:163-174.
  • Wheelwright, N. T., and G. H. Orians. 1982. Seed dispersal by animals: contrasts with pollen dispersal, problems of terminology, and constraints on coevolution. American Naturalist 119:150-164.
  • Wheelwright, N. T., and C. H. Janson. 1985. Colors of fruit displays of bird-dispersed plants in two tropical forests. American Naturalist 126:777-799.
  • Wheelwright, N. T., and A. Bruneau. 1992. Population sex ratios and spatial distribution of Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae) trees in a tropical forest. Journal of Ecology 80:425-432.
  • Wheelwright, N. T., W. A. Haber, K. G. Murray, and C. Guindon. 1984. Tropical fruit-eating birds and their food plants: a survey of a Costa Rican lower montane forest. Biotropica 16:173-191.
  • Whitehead, D. R. 1983. Wind pollination: some ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Pages 97-108 in L. Real, editor. Pollination biology. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, USA.
  • Wiebes, J. T. 1995. The New World Agaoninae (pollinators of figs). North-Holland Publishing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Willson, M. F., and J. ┼gren. 1989. Differential floral rewards and pollination by deceit in unisexual flowers. Oikos 55:23-29.
  • Willson, M. F., E. A. Porter, and R. S. Condit. 1982. Avian frugivore activity in relation to forest light gaps. Caribbean Journal of Science 18:1-6.
  • Witmer, M. C. 1996. Do some bird-dispersed fruits contain natural laxatives? Ecology 77:1947-1948.
  • Wyatt, R. 1983. Pollinator-plant interactions and the evolution of breeding systems. Pages 51-95 in L. Real, editor. Pollination biology. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, USA.
  • Young, H. J. 1990. Pollination and reproductive biology of an understory neotropical aroid. Pages 151-164 in K. S. Bawa and M. Hadley, editors. Reproductive ecology of tropical forest plants. Parthenon Publishing, Carnforth, UK.
  • Young, H. J., and T. P. Young. 1992. Alternative outcomes of natural and experimental high pollen loads. Ecology 73:639-647.
  • Data Sets
    Return to Top of Page