Plants and Vegetation of Monteverde
 
Tubular flowers of the mistletoe, Psittachantus scheryiPhoto by Stephen Ingram.
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 Bibliographic citations on the Plants and Vegetation of Monteverde

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Bibliograhic citations on the Plants and Vegetation of Monteverde  (Go to Full Bibliographic Citation Listing)
  • Alverson, W. S., W. Kuhlmann, and D. M. Waller. 1994. Wild forests, conservation biology and public policy. Island Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
  • Atwood, J. T. 1987. The vascular flora of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica: Orchidaceae. Selbyana 10:76-145.
  • _____. 1988. An approach to regional orchid floras: The Florula. Pages 46-50 in Kamezo Saito, and Ryuso Tanaka, editors. Proceedings of the Twelfth World Orchid Conference. Tokyo, Kokusaibunken Insatsusha Co., Ltd.
  • _____. 1989. Orchids of Costa Rica 1: plates 1392-1395. Icones Plantarum Tropicarum, Fascicle 14. Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, Florida, USA.
  • _____. 1992. Orchids of Costa Rica 2: plates 1401-1500. Icones Plantarum Tropicarum, Fascicle 15. Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, Florida, USA.
  • _____. 1995. Two overlooked species of Maxillaria from Central America. Selbyana 16:242-245.
  • Atwood, J. T., and R. L. Dressler. 1995. Another new species of Stellilabium from Monteverde, Costa Rica. Selbyana 16:239-241.
  • Baldwin, I. T., C. L. Sims, and S. E. Kean. 1990. The reproductive consequences associated with inducible alkaloidal responses in wild tobacco. Ecology 71:252-262.
  • Bawa, K. S. 1980. Evolution of dioecy in flowering plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11:15-39.
  • Bawa, K. S., and P. A. Opler. 1977. Spatial relationships between staminate and pistillate plants of dioecious tropical forest trees. Evolution 31:64-68.
  • Benzing, D. H. 1989. The evolution of epiphytism. Pages 15-41 in U. Lüttge, editor. Vascular plants as epiphytes: evolution and ecophysiology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
  • _____. 1990. Vascular epiphytes. General biology and related biota. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York, USA.
  • Berrie, G. K., and J. M. O. Eze. 1975. The relationship between an epiphyllous liverwort and host leaves. Annals of Botany 39:955-963.
  • Bierzychudek, P., and V. Eckhart. 1988. Spatial segregation of the sexes of dioecious plants. American Naturalist 132:34-43.
  • Bigelow, S., and P. Kukle. 1991. The ferns of Monteverde. Tropical Science Center, San José, Costa Rica.
  • Bock, W. J. 1959. Preadaptation and multiple evolutionary pathways. Evolution 13:194-211.
  • Bohlman, S., T. Matelson, and N. Nadkarni. 1995. Moisture and temperature patterns of canopy humus and forest floor soil of a montane cloud forest, Costa Rica. Biotropica 27:13-19.
  • Bolaños, R. A., and V. Watson. 1993. Mapa ecológico de Costa Rica. Centro Científico Tropical, San José, Costa Rica.
  • Bronstein, J. 1988a. Limits to fruit production in a monoecious fig: consequences of an obligate mutualism. Ecology 69:207-214.
  • _____. 1988b. Mutualism, antagonism, and the fig-pollinator interaction. Ecology 69:1298-1302.
  • Burger, W. C. 1977. Flora Costaricensis: Moraceae. Fieldiana, Botany 40:94-215.
  • _____. 1980. Why are there so many kinds of flowering plants in Costa Rica? Brenesia 17:371-388.
  • Burger, W. C., and C. M. Taylor. 1993. Flora Costaricensis: Rubiaceae. Fieldiana, Botany, New Series No. 33:1-333.
  • Burger, W. C., and H. van der Werff. 1990. Flora Costaricensis: Lauraceae. Fieldiana, Botany, New Series No. 23:1-138.
  • Burt-Utley K., and J. T. Utley. 1977. Supplementary notes: phytogeography, physiological ecology and the Costa Rican genera of Bromeliaceae. Historia Natural de Costa Rica. Vol 1. Departmento de Historia Natural, Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. San José, Costa Rica.
  • Calvin, C. L., C. A. Wilson, and G. Varughese. 1991. Growth of longitudinal strands of Phoradendron juniperinum (Viscaceae) in shoots of Juniperus occidentalis. Annals of Botany 67:153-162.
  • Clark, D. A. 1994. Plant demography. Pages 90-105 in L. McDade, K. S. Bawa, H. A. Hespenheide, and G. S. Hartshorn, editors. La Selva: ecology and natural history of a neotropical rain forest. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Cole, M. C. 1983. An illustrated guide to the genera of Costa Rican Hepaticae. 1. Brenesia 21:137-201.
  • _____. 1984. Thallose liverworts and hornworts of Costa Rica. Brenesia 22:319-348.
  • Cronquist, A. 1981. An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press, New York, New York, USA.
  • Daniels, J. D., and R. O. Lawton. 1991. Habitat and host preferences of Ficus crassiuscula, a neotropical strangling fig of the lower-montane rain forest. Journal of Ecology 79:129-141.
  • Daniels, J. D., and R. O. Lawton. 1993. A natural history of strangling by Ficus crassiuscula in Costa Rican lower montane rain forest. Selbyana 14:59-63.
  • Davidse G., M. Sousa, and A. O. Chater, editors. 1994. Flora MesoAmericana. Vol. 6. Alismataceae to Cyperaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
  • Dawson, T. E., E. J. King, and J. R. Ehleringer. 1990. Age structure of Phoradendron juniperinum (Viscaceae) a xylem-tapping mistletoe inferences from a non-destructive morphological index of age. American Journal of Botany 77:573-583.
  • Dinerstein, E. 1986. Reproductive ecology of fruit bats and the seasonality of fruit production in a Costa Rican cloud forest. Biotropica 18:307-318.
  • Dobzhansky, T., and B. J. Murca-Pires. 1954. Strangler trees. Scientific American 190:78-80.
  • Dressler, R. L. 1981. The orchids: natural history and classification. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
  • _____. 1993. Field guide to the orchids of Costa Rica and Panama. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Ehleringer, J. R., E. D. Schultz, H. Ziegler, O. L. Lange, G. D. Farquhar, and I. R. Cowan. 1985. Xylem-tapping mistletoes: water or nutrient parasites? Science 227:1479-81.
  • Esau, K. 1977. Anatomy of seed plants. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York, USA.
  • Eze, J. M. O., and G. K. Berrie. 1977. Further investigations into the physiological relationship between an epiphyllous liverwort and its host leaves. Annals of Botany 41:351-358.
  • Feinsinger, P. 1978. Ecological interactions between plants and hummingbirds in a successsional tropical community. Ecological Monographs 48:269-287.
  • Foster, R. B. 1990. The floristic composition of the Río Manú floodplain forest. Pages 99-111 in A. H. Gentry, editor. Four neotropical rainforests. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
  • Fowler, S. V., and J. H. Lawton. 1985. Rapidly induced defenses and talking trees: the devil's advocate position. American Naturalist 126:181-195.
  • Freeman, D. C., K. T. Harper, and E. L.Charnov. 1980. Sex change in plants: old and new observations and new hypotheses. Oecologia 47:222-232.
  • Futuyma, D. J. 1986. Evolutionary biology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.
  • Gedalovich-Shedletzky, E., D. P. Delmer, and J. Kuijt. 1989. Chemical composition of viscin mucilage from three mistletoe species: a comparison. Annals of Botany 64:249-252.
  • Gentry, A. H. 1982. Patterns of neotropical plant species diversity. Evolutionary Biology 15:1-84.
  • _____. 1983. Neotropical floristic diversity: phytogeographical connections between Central and South America, Pleistocene climatic fluctuations, or an accident of the Andean orogeny? Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 69:557-593.
  • _____, editor. 1990. Four neotropical rainforests. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
  • Gentry, A. H., and C. H. Dodson. 1987. Diversity and biogeography of neotropical vascular epiphytes. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 74:205-233.
  • Gibson, J. P., and N. T. Wheelwright. 1995. Genetic structure in a population of a tropical tree Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae): influence of avian seed dispersal. Oecologia 103:49-54.
  • Gibson, J. P., and N. T. Wheelwright. 1996. Mating system dynamics of Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae), a gynodioecious tropical tree. American Journal of Botany 83:890-894.
  • Gradstein, S. R. 1992. Threatened bryophytes of the neotropical rain forest: a status report. Tropical Bryology 6:83-94.
  • Gradstein, S. R., and T. Pócs. 1989. Bryophytes. Pages 311-325 in H. Lieth and M. J. A. Werger, editors. Tropical rainforest ecosystems. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Gradstein, S. R., A. Lücking, M. I. Morales, and G. Dauphin.1994. Additions to the hepatic flora of Costa Rica. Lindbergia 19:73-86.
  • Grant, A.R. 1981. Plant speciation, second edition. Columbia University Press, New York, New York, USA.
  • Griffin, D., and M. I. Morales. 1983. Key to the genera of mosses from Costa Rica. Brenesia 21:299-323.
  • Haber, W. A. 1983. Checklist of Sphingidae. Pages 645-650 in D. H., Janzen, editor. Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • _____. 1984. Pollination by deceit in a mass-flowering tropical tree, Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae). Biotropica 16:269-275.
  • _____. 1991. Lista provisional de las plantas de Monteverde, Costa Rica. Brenesia 34:63-120.
  • Haber, W. A., and K. S. Bawa. 1984. Evolution of dioecism in Saurauia (Dilleniaceae). Annals of the  Missouri Botanical Garden 71:289-293.
  • Haber, W. A., and G. W. Frankie. 1988. A tropical hawkmoth community: Costa Rican dry forest Sphingidae. Biotropica 21:155-172.
  • Haber, W. A., W. Zuchowski, and E. Bello. 1996. An introduction to cloud forest trees: Monteverde, Costa Rica. Monteverde, Costa Rica. La Nación, San José, Costa Rica.
  • Hammel, B. E. 1990. The distribution and diversity among families, genera, and habitat types in the La Selva flora. Pages 75-84 in A. H. Gentry, editor. Four neotropical rainforests. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
  • _____. 1997. Three new species of Celastraceae from Costa Rica, one disjunct from Mexico. Novon 7:147-155.
  • Harris, L. D.1984. The fragmented forest: island biogeography theory and the preservation of biotic diversity. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Hartshorn, G. S. 1983. Plants. Pages 118-157 in D. H. Janzen, editor. Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Hartshorn, G. S., and B. E. Hammel. 1994. Vegetation types and floristic patterns. Pages 73-89 in L. McDade, K. S. Bawa, H. A. Hespenheide, and G. S. Hartshorn, editors. La Selva: ecology and natural history of a neotropical rain forest. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Hartshorn, G. S., and L. J. Poveda. 1983. Checklist of trees. Pages 158-183 in D. H. Janzen, editor. Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Harvey, P. H., and M. D. Pagel. 1991. The comparative method in evolutionary biology. Oxford University Press, New York, New York, USA.
  • Henderson, A., G. Galeano, and R. Bernal. 1995. Field guide to the palms of the Americas. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.
  • Holdridge, L. R. 1966. The life zone system. Adansonia 6:199-203.
  • _____. 1967. Life zone ecology. Tropical Science Center, San José, Costa Rica.
  • _____. 1978. Ecología basada en zonas de vida. Instituto Inter-Americano de Ciencias Agricolas, San José, Costa Rica.
  • Holdridge, L. R., and L. J. Poveda. 1975. Arboles de Costa Rica. Tropical Science Center, San José, Costa Rica.
  • Horn, B. W., and R. W. Lichtwardt. 1981. Studies on the nutritional relationship of larval Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) with Smittium culisetae (Trichomycetes). Mycologia 73:724-740.
  • Ingram, S. W. 1989. The abundance, vegetative composition, and distribution of epiphytes in a Costa Rican lower montane rain forest. Masters Thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA.
  • Ingram, S. W., and N. M. Nadkarni. 1993. Composition and distribution of epiphytic organic matter in a neotropical cloud forest, Costa Rica. Biotropica 25:370-383.
  • Ingram, S. W., K. Ferrell-Ingram, and N. M. Nadkarni. 1996. Floristic composition of vascular epiphytes in a neotropical cloud forest, Monteverde, Costa Rica. Selbyana 17:88-103.
  • Janzen, D. H., editor. 1983. Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Janzen, D. H., and R. Liesner. 1980. Annotated check-list of plants of lowland Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, exclusive of grasses and non-vascular cryptogams. Brenesia 18:15-90.
  • Kappelle, M. 1995. Ecology of mature and recovering Talamancan Quercus forests, Costa Rica. Netherlands Foundation for Tropical Research (WOTRO). The Hague, The Netherlands.
  • Kappelle, M., and M. E. Leal. 1996. Changes in leaf morphology and foliar nutrient status along a successional gradient in a Costa Rica upper montane Quercus forest. Biotropica 28:331-344.
  • Kappelle, M., N. Zamora, and T. Flores. 1990. Flora leñosa de la zona alta (2000-3819 m) de la Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica. Brenesia 34:121-144.
  • Kelly, D. L., E. V. J. Tanner, E. M. NicLughadha, and V. Kapos. 1994. Floristics and biogeography of a rain forest in the Venezuelan Andes. Journal of Biogeography 21:421-440.
  • Kinsman, S. 1990. Regeneration by fragmentation in tropical montane forest shrubs. American Journal of Botany 77:1626-1633.
  • Koptur, S. 1983. Flowering phenology and floral biology of Inga (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). Systematic Botany 8:354-368.
  • _____. 1984. Outcrossing and pollinator limitation of fruit set: breeding systems of neotropical Inga trees (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). Evolution 38:1130-1143.
  • Koptur, S., and M. A. Lee. 1993. Plantlet formation in tropical montane ferns: a preliminary investigation. American Fern Journal 83:60-66.
  • Koptur, S., W. A. Haber, G. W. Frankie, and H. G. Baker. 1988. Phenological studies of shrub and treelet species in tropical cloud forests of Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology 4:323-346.
  • Kress, W. J. 1989. The systematic distribution of vascular epiphytes. Pages 234-261 in U. Lüttge, editor. Vascular plants as epiphytes: evolution and ecophysiology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
  • Kress, W. J., and J. H. Beach. 1994. Flowering plants reproductive systems. Pages 161-182 in L. McDade, K. S. Bawa, H. A. Hespenheide, and G. S. Hartshorn, editors. La Selva: ecology and natural history of a neotropical rain forest. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Kuijt, J. 1963. On the ecology and parasitism of the Costa Rican tree mistletoe, Gaiadendron punctatum (Ruiz & Pavon) G. Don. Canadian Journal of Botany 41:927-938.
  • _____. 1969. The biology of parasitic flowering plants. University of California Press, Berkeley, California, USA.
  • Laman, T. G. 1994. The ecology of strangler figs (hemiepiphytic Ficus spp.) in the rainforest canopy of Borneo. Ph.D. Dissertation. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
  • Lawton, R. O. 1980. Wind and the ontogeny of elfin stature in a Costa Rican lower montane rain forest. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • _____. 1982. Wind stress and elfin stature in a montane rain forest tree: an adaptive explanation. American Journal of Botany 69:1224-1240.
  • _____. 1984. Ecological constraints on wood density in a tropical montane rain forest. American Journal of Botany 71:261-267.
  • _____. 1986. The evolution of strangling by Ficus crassiuscula. Brenesia 25/26: 273-278.
  • _____. 1989. More on strangling by Ficus crassiuscula Warb. ex Standley: a reply to Ramírez. Brenesia 32:119-120.
  • _____. 1990. Canopy gaps and light penetration into a wind-exposed tropical lower montane rain forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20:659-667.
  • Lawton, R. O., and V. Dryer. 1980. The vegetation of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve. Brenesia 18:101-116.
  • Lawton, R. O., and F. E. Putz. 1988. Natural disturbance and gap-phase regeneration in a wind-exposed tropical cloud forest. Ecology 69:764-777.
  • Lawton, R. O., and G. Williams-Linera. 1996. Hemiepiphyte-host relationships: research problems and prospects. Selbyana 17:71-74.
  • Lee, M. A. B., P. A. Burrowes, J. E. Fauth, J. C. Koella, and S. M. Peterson. 1986. The distribution of tree ferns along an altitudinal gradient in Monteverde, Costa Rica. Brenesia 25/26:45-50.
  • Leigh, E. G., A. S. Rand, and D. M. Windsor, editors. 1982. The ecology of a tropical forest, seasonal rhythms and long-term changes. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C., USA.
  • Lellinger, D. B. 1989. The ferns and fern-allies of Costa Rica, Panama, and the Chocó. I. Psilotaceae through Dicksoniaceae. Pteridologia 2A.
  • Lesica, P., and R. Antibus 1990. The occurrence of mycorrhizae in vascular epiphytes of two Costa Rican rain forests. Biotropica 22:250-258.
  • Levin, D. A. 1974. Spatial segregation of pins and thrums in populations of Hedyotis nigricans. Evolution 28:648-655.
  • Lloyd, D. G., and K. S. Bawa. 1984. Modification of the gender of seed plants in varying conditions. Evolutionary Biology 17:253-338.
  • Lichtwardt, R. W. 1986. The Trichomycetes, fungal associates of arthropods. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, USA.
  • _____. 1994. Trichomycete gut fungi living in the guts of Costa Rican phytotelm larvae and other lentic dipterans. Revista de Biología Tropical 42:31-48.
  • _____. 1996. Trichomycetes and the arthropod gut. Pages 315-330 in D. Howard and D. Miller, editors. The Mycota, Vol. VI, Animal and human relations. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
  • _____. 1997. Costa Rican gut fungi (Trychomycetes) infecting lotic insect larvae. Revista de Biología Tropical 45:
  • Lieberman, M., and D. Lieberman. 1994. Patterns of density and dispersion of forest trees. Pages 106-119 in L. McDade, K. S. Bawa, H. A. Hespenheide, and G. S. Hartshorn, editors. La Selva: ecology and natural history of a neotropical rain forest. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Linhart, Y. B., P. Feinsinger, J. H. Beach, W. H. Busby, K. G. Murray, W. Z. Pounds, S. Kinsman, C. Guindon, and M. Kooiman. 1987. Disturbance and predictability of flowering patterns in bird-pollinated cloud forest plants. Ecology 68:1696-1710.
  • Lücking, A. 1995. Diversität und Mikrohabitatpräeferenzen epiphyller Moose in einem tropischen Regenwald in Costa Rica. Doctoral Dissertation. Universität Ulm, Germany.
  • Luther, H. E. 1995. An annotated checklist of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica. Selbyana 16:230-234.
  • Luther, H. E., and E. Sieff. 1996. An alphabetical list of bromeliad binomials, 5th edition. The Bromeliad Society, Inc. Newberg, Oregon, USA.
  • Mabberley, D. J. 1987. The plant-book. A portable dictionary of the higher plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Madison, M. 1977. Vascular epiphytes: Their systematic occurrence and salient features. Selbyana 2:1-13.
  • Maffia, B., N. M. Nadkarni and D. Janos. 1993. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae of epiphytic and terrestrial Piperaceae under field and greenhouse conditions. Mycorrhiza 4:5-9.
  • Matelson, T. J., N. M. Nadkarni, and J. T. Longino. 1993. Longevity of fallen epiphytes in a neotropical montane forest. Ecology 74:265-269.
  • Melampy, M. N., and H. F. Howe. 1977. Sex ratio in the tropical tree Triplaris americana (Polygonaceae). Evolution 31:867-872.
  • Metcalfe, C. R., and L. Chalk. 1950. Anatomy of the dicotyledons. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Monge-Nájera, J. 1989. The relationship of epiphyllous liverworts with leaf characteristics and light in Monte Verde, Costa Rica. Cryptogamie, Bryologie, Lichénologie 10:345-352.
  • Mora de Retana, D. E. and J. T. Atwood. 1993. Orchids of Costa Rica 3: Plates 1501-1600. Icones Plantarum Tropicarum, Fascicle 15. Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, Florida, USA.
  • Mora-Retana, D.E., and J. B. García. 1992. Lista actualizada de las orchídeas de Costa Rica (Orchidaceae). Brenesia 37:79-124.
  • Moss, S. T., and E. Descals. 1986. A previously undescribed stage in the life cycle of Harpellales (Trichomycetes). Mycologia 78:213-222.
  • Myster, R. W. 1993. Spatial heterogeneity of seedrain, seedpool, and vegetative cover on two Monteverde landslides. Brenesia 39-40:137-145.
  • Nadkarni, N. M. 1984. Epiphyte biomass and nutrient capital of a neotropical elfin forest. Biotropica 16:249-256.
  • _____. 1986. The nutritional effects of epiphytes on host trees with special reference to alteration of precipitation chemistry. Selbyana 9:44-51.
  • _____. 1994. Diversity of species and interactions in the upper tree canopy of forest ecosystems. American Zoologist 34:321-330.
  • Nadkarni, N. M., and T. J. Matelson. 1989. Bird use of epiphyte resources in neotropical trees. The Condor 91:891-907.
  • Nadkarni, N. M., and T. J. Matelson. 1992. Biomass and nutrient dynamics of epiphyte litterfall in a neotropical cloud forest, Costa Rica. Biotropica 24:24-30.
  • Nadkarni, N., T. J. Matelson, and W. A. Haber. 1995. Structural characteristics and floristic composition of a neotropical cloud forest, Monteverde, Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology 11:481-494.
  • Nepokroeff, M. 1992. Relationships among Psychotria section Notopleura and related taxa in the tribe Psychotrieae (Rubiaceae): determining monophyletic groups based on ITS sequence data. Masters Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
  • Nepokroeff, M., and K. J Sytsma. 1996. Systematics and patterns of speciation and colonization in Hawaiian Psychotria and relatives based on phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence data. American Journal of Botany 83:181-182.
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  • Nickrent, D. L. 1993. HyperParasite: A Hypercard based data storage system for selected parasitic flowering plants. Golden Bough (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew) 12:1-6.
  • O'Hara, R. J. 1988. Homage to Clio, or toward an historical philosophy for evolutionary biology. Systematic Zoology 37:142-155.
  • Opler, P. A., and K. S. Bawa. 1978. Sex ratios in tropical forest trees. Evolution 32:812-821.
  • Pócs, T. 1980. The epiphytic biomass and its effect on the water balance of two rain forest types in the Ulugur Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa). Acta Botanica Hungarica Plantarum 26:143-167.
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  • Ramírez, W. 1988. A reply to Lawton's paper on Ficus crassiuscula Warb. as a strangler. Brenesia 29:115-116.
  • Rebertus, A. J. 1988. Crown shyness in a tropical cloud forest. Biotropica 20:338-339.
  • Reed, C. F., and H. Robinson. 1971. Bryophytes of Monteverde, Costa Rica. Phytologia 21:6-21.
  • Renner, S. S., and R. E. Ricklefs. 1995. Dioecy and its correlates in the flowering plants. American Journal of Botany 82:596-606.
  • Rhoades, D. F. 1983. Responses of alder and willow to attack by tent caterpillars and webworms: evidence for pheromonal sensitivity of willows. Pages 55-68 in P.A. Hedin, editor. Plant resistance to insects. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., USA.
  • Rice, E. L. 1984. Allelopathy. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, USA.
  • Richards, P. 1984. The ecology of tropical forest bryophytes. Pages 1233-1270 in R. M. Schuster, editor. New manual of bryology. 2. The Hattori Botanical Laboratory, Miyazaki, Japan.
  • Sagers, C. L. 1993. Reproduction in neotropical shrubs: the occurrence and some mechanisms of asexuality. Ecology 74:615-618.
  • Sallé, G. 1983. Germination and establishment of Viscum album L. Pages 145-159 in M. Calder and P. Bernhardt, editors. The biology of mistletoes. Academic Press, Sydney, Australia.
  • Sargent, S. 1994. Seed dispersal of mistletoes by birds in Monteverde, Costa Rica. Ph.D. Dissertation. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • _____. 1995. Seed fate in a tropical mistletoe: the importance of host twig size. Functional Ecology 9:197-204.
  • Sillett, S. C., S. R. Gradstein, and D. Griffin III. 1995. Bryophyte diversity of Ficus tree crowns from intact cloud forest and pasture in Costa Rica. The Bryologist 98:251-260.
  • Smith, A. P. 1979. The paradox of autotoxicity in plants. Evolutionary Theory 4:173-180.
  • Smith, J. F., and K. J. Sytsma. 1994. Evolution of the Andean epiphytic genus Columnea (Gesneriaceae). II. Chloroplast DNA restriction site variation. Systematic Botany 19:317-336.
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  • Titus, J. H., N. M. Holbrook, and F. E. Putz. 1990. Seed germination and seedling distribution of Ficus pertusa and F. tuerckheimii: are strangler figs autotoxic? Biotropica 22:425-428.
  • Tosi, J. A. 1969. Mapa ecológico de Costa Rica. Tropical Science Center, San José, Costa Rica.
  • Wheelwright, N. T. 1983. Fruits and the ecology of the Respendent Quetzals. The Auk 100:286-301.
  • _____. 1985. Competition for dipersers, and the timing of flowering and fruiting in a guild of tropical trees. Oikos 44:465-477.
  • _____. 1986. A seven-year study of individal variation in fruit production in tropical bird-dispersed tree species in the family Lauraceae. Pages in A. Estrada and T. H. Fleming, editors. Frugivores and seed dispersal. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • _____. 1988. Four constraints on coevolution between fruit eating birds and fruiting plants: a tropical case history. International Ornithological Congress, Ottawa, Canada.
  • _____. 1993. Fruit size in a tropical tree species: variation, preference by birds, and heritability. Vegetatio 107/108:163-174.
  • Wheelwright, N. T., and A. Bruneau. 1992a. Population sex ratios and spatial distribution of Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae) trees in a tropical forest. Journal of Ecology 80:425-430.
  • Wheelwright, N. T., and A. Bruneau. 1992b. Population sex ratios and spatial distribution of Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae) trees in a tropical forest. Journal of Ecology 80:425-432.
  • Zamora, N. 1989. Flora arborascente de Costa Rica. 1. Especies de Hojas Simples. Editorial Tecnológica de Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica.
  • Zuchowski, W. 1996. Common flowering plants of the Monteverde Cloud Forest. Tropical Science Center, San José, Costa Rica.
  • Data Sets
    Epiphytes of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve (S. Ingram)

    Trichomycete gut fungi in Monteverde arthropods (R. Lichtwardt)

    Links
    Leccium and Phylloporus in Costa Rica  www.nybg.org/bsci/res/hall/deltaindex.html
     

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