Contrasting styles of famous ant and ant-plant studiers.

photo of F. Mueller photo of W. M. Wheeler
This is a photo of F. Muller, who studied Cecropia in Brazil in the late 1800's. He "roughed it" in the field for long periods of time. He saw mutualism. Susanne Renner sent me a copy of this photo; she got it from Alfred Moeller (1920): Fritz Mueller. Werke, Briefe und Leben. 3. Band: Fritz Muellers Leben.- Jena: Gustav Fischer. This is a photo of William Morton Wheeler, premier ant biologist in the early part of this century. He was a Harvard Professor. Note the collecting attire. He made short trips to the field. He saw parasitism. Ant plants had no more need for their ants than "dogs had for their fleas." This photo was scanned off the dust jacket of the Evans' biography of Wheeler.

Page author:

John T. Longino, The Evergreen State College, Olympia WA 98505 USA.

Date of this version: 2 May 2001
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